Parenting is an incredibly difficult, but at the same time rewarding occupation. Every single family is highly interested in the positive development of the child’s personality. Therefore, it’s important to choose the most appropriate and reasonable style of parenting. Psychologists determine 4 main styles of family education: authoritarian, authoritative, permissive and uninvolved style. Let’s find out the specifics of each of the styles and its impact on the child’s identity.
First of all, we will consider the Authoritarian style of parenting. The essence of the concept is that there is no standard communication between children and parents; it is replaced with strict requirements and regulations. Parents often give orders and expect that they will be exactly fulfilled, discussions are not allowed. As a result, children in such families are usually unpretentious, closed, sullen and sometimes really irritable. Girls usually remain passive and dependent during their adolescence. Boys can become uncontrollable and aggressive and highly reactive to harming and punishing the environment in which they grow.
The most efficient and favorable for the development of a harmonious personality of the child is authoritative style of parenting. It is characterized by warm relations between parents and children, moderate disciplinary requirements and rules, and frequent communication. Authoritative parents are caring and thoughtful; they create comfortable home atmosphere and provide their children with an emotional support. Parents recognize and encourage the growing autonomy of their children. Authoritative parents always set limits and acceptable standards of child’s behavior. In such families children clearly understand that they can ask for any help of help when it is needed. If the parent’s demands are not met, they refer to such situation with the complete understanding. In general, this parenting style is characterized by mutual understanding and cooperation between parents and their children.
Permissive parenting style is characterized by warm relations between parents and children, poor discipline, the absence of real help and support from their parents. There is a feeling that permissive parents are taking orders and instructions from their children and do everything possible to satisfy their needs and requirements. It is absolutely ironic that the children from such kind of families are mostly unhappy. They are more prone to psychological problems such as depression and phobias of various kinds. As a result, we can often observe such kind of deviations in child’s development as infantilism, high and constant anxiety, lack of independence. Most children are rather impulsive and avoid any kind of responsibility.
So, what is an uninvolved style of parenting? What is the essence of it? First of all, we must admit that it is an emotional rejection of the child by their parents; it is the lack of warmth, love and care; the deprivation of the full support and assistance. This can be explained by the fact that his birth did not want to or that parents of the child expected him to behave in a different way. This form of education promotes the appearance of the child's sense of inferiority, constant suspiciousness and feelings of guilt.
We must note that these styles may not appear in pure form. Parents in different situations may have different parenting styles. However, it was proved by the psychologists that every single family must establish a special style of parenting, the style that the child can understand, taking into account their needs and capabilities.
But we must always remember that the most important thing for every single child is the love and the respect of the parents.
D, Baumrind. The influence of parenting style on adolescent competence and substance use. Journal of Early Adolescence, 1991.
H, Hockenbury D, and Hockenbury E. Psychology. New York: Worth Publishers, 2003.
Bernstein, Douglas A, and Peggy Nash. Essentials of psychology. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1999.