Determination of hypothesis
Apparently, the most important hypothesis among the three generated assumptions is the one concerned with security. The exact hypothesis is: The U.S. immigration reform policy circa 2001 to present has not improved the security situation. Apparently, the most prominent concern of the U.S government, when designing such legislation as that relating to immigration, is security. The illegal immigrants are generally associated with such evils as drug trafficking, human trafficking as well as terrorism (West & Brookings Institution, 2010). As such, the effectiveness of the U.S. immigration reform policy circa 2001 to present can only be evaluated by the much the legislation has managed to reduce insecurity as the key menace facing the United States today. The hypothesis is of relevance as it will enable the government and the enforcement agencies to answer various analytical questions relating to the efficiency and effectiveness of the legislation.
Description of relevant research
Fundamentally, research concerns itself with the efforts aimed at answering various policy question. Apparently, research is an investigation carried out in the real situation with regard to a particular aspect of study. In the case of The U.S. immigration reform policy circa 2001 to present, research will definitely focus on such things as the aims of the legal changes as well as the degree to which such prime aims have been attained. Whether or not a research is relevant depends to a great extent on the context within which the researcher is carrying out the study (Farnam, 2005). In looking into immigration legislation, research can only be relevant if and only if it addresses the objectives of such legislation and the achievements of the said legislation. This means that the research will have to evaluate the security situation in a comparative aspect. By comparative study, it means that the researcher will have to describe the security situation prior to the legislation and the security situation after the implementation of the legislation.
Relevance of the research will be rooted in the use of relevant and measurable variables. Such variables will be in such a way that they relate to both The U.S. immigration reform policy circa 2001 to present and the extent to which such reform has impacted on the security situation in the United States of America. Relevant research will focus on how the enforcement of the laws has taken place this far. The enforcement of the anti-illegal immigration policies takes many forms. Arguably, illegal immigration accounts for a significant percentage of the total number of foreigners in the United States. It is for this reason that the administration of the United States has invested a lot on border enforcement. The effectiveness of border enforcement has been affected by such things as corruption and vested interest. The Mexican border has been identified as the worst point along all borders of the united states as far as illegal immigration and drug trafficking are concerned (Graham, 2008). The research will therefore consider all the factors relating to border enforcement in relation to border security. For relevance purpose, the research will use three variables. The research will employ one dependent changeable and two primary independent variables. The prime dependent variable will be insecurity in comparative terms. The independent variables to be used are the legal reforms and the border enforcement. Worth noting is the fact that independent variables do not change with changes in other variables. On the contrary, the reliant variable, which, in this situation, is security, varies according to changes in other variables.
Identification and description of three variables
The variables to be employed in this reading are of two natures. The first type of variables to be used in this research is the independent variable. The second form of variable is the reliant variable. The major difference between the dependent and the independent variable is the fact that the independent variable remains constant while the dependent variable changes in response to changes in other variables. As such, the independent variable that will be utilized in this study is the making of reforms. The second independent variable that will be adopted is the issue of border enforcement. Border enforcement is concerned with the implementation of all laws concerned with the protection of the borders. The major reason as to why the making of laws and enforcement of such laws is considered independent is the fact that such legislation and enforcement are functions of the legislative and enforcement agencies of the United States government. Apparently, continuous legislation is inevitable. This is irrespective of the changes in other aspects of the legal framework.
Similarly, the function of enforcing the border laws is inevitable at the border points. As such, it becomes an independent variable in the sense that whether or not there is change in other factors; the enforcement will remain to be carried out. Apparently, it is not possible to eliminate the function of border enforcement. On the other hand the level of insecurity is a dependent variable in the sense that it varies according to legislation and other enforcement activities. Insecurity has been a major issue of concern for a considerably long time now in the United States of America (LeMay, 2006). Insecurity depends on how the legislation relating to such things as immigration is executed. This is the prime reason why insecurity is considered the major dependent variable in this study. Considering the hypothesis that has been selected, employing insecurity as the major dependent variable adds to the relevance of the research.
Insecurity is a principle menace in all sectors in the United States economy and social setting. This is why it is described as a dependent variable in this particular paper because the level of insecurity occasioned by immigration varies from one sector to another depending on the nature of activities that the sectors concern them with (Newton, 2008). Insecurity is one of the things negatively affecting the level and extent to which economic development and growth occur in all countries. Worth noting is the point that the entire United States is a principal target of terrorists activities. Terrorism is an integral part of insecurity in the United States of America. The legislation relating to illegal immigration is aimed at taming the menace of terrorism internationally. Arguably, terrorism is one of the factors that can hinder the interests of the United States in the international community therefore; this research will focus on the issues of insecurity in the circumstance of the entire United States. Since security is a factor determining the level of economic activity within the borders of the United States. Additionally, illegal immigration is a treat to the labor market in the sense that the illegal immigrants pose unfair competition to the locals. This indirectly adds to insecurity.
How to measure each variable
A dependent variable is a measure that changes in response to changes in other variables. For our purposes, the dependent variable is insecurity. Apparently, insecurity varies according to changes in reforms and levels of enforcement. Measuring the level of insecurity may take many forms. The most prominent way in which insecurity can be measured is carrying out comparative studies relating to the rate of insecurity before the year 2001 and the level of insecurity thereafter. Carrying out this comparative study may entail comparing the number of criminals who were immigrants in either period. Additionally, the comparative study may entail taking down the number of criminal reports relating to both legal and illegal immigrants. More often than not, immigrants have found themselves on the wrong side of the legal framework for different reasons. This is in actual fact so in the case of illegitimate immigrants who are not bound by the legal provisions of the United States. Among the major crimes committed by the illegal immigrants are such things as drug trafficking and human trafficking (Rachbauer, 2008). For the purposes of this research, insecurity will be measured by gathering actual information relating to insecurity levels before 2001 and insecurity after 2001 in relation to immigration. Such information will be collected from law enforcement agencies, federal courts, correctional facility administration as well as border enforcement personnel.
As much as the independent variable relating to this case appears immeasurable, they can be estimated using various measures. Typically, independent variables do not change with changes in other variables. On the contrary they affect other dependent variables.
Measuring the extent to which enforcement at the boarders is being carried out may be an uphill task, but using comparative studies over the past decade boarder enforcement can be measured in both absolute terms and effectiveness (Rosenblum, 2011. This research will endeavor to evaluate boarder enforcement in terms of how such enforcement has been emphasized for the past ten years. Since the year 2001 research indicates that the Mexican border is a volatile spot as far as illegal immigration and drug trafficking is concerned. As such, the government of the United States has committed a lot in the enforcement of boarder related legislation. For our purposes, boarder enforcement will be measured by the number of sentry and check points available along the border of the U.S. Furthermore, the measurement of boarder enforcement will take the structure of the number of incidences handled by the boarder enforcers. This may mean the research will look into the number of illegal immigrants arrested at the entry points.
There have been a number of immigration reforms in the United States since the year 2001 following the high rate of insecurity and crime relating to immigration. Measuring such reforms may be impracticable (Vita & Ervin, 2012). For this reason this research will focus on the number of reform s and their impacts on the immigration policy on the United States over the last decade. The research will further look into the progressive relationship between the reforms and the level of migration, both officially permitted and illegitimate, in the last ten years. In measuring these reforms, the research will consider all reforms relating to border enforcement in the last ten ears. Worth noting is the actuality that there is a close connection between immigration reforms and border enforcing as both are concerned with regulating immigration into the united states.
Farnam, J. (2005). US immigration laws under the threat of terrorism. New York: Algora Publ.
Graham, O. L. (2008). Immigration reform and America’s unchosen future. Bloomington, IN: Author House.
LeMay, M. C. (2006). Guarding the gates: Immigration and national security. Westport, Conn. [u.a.: Praeger Security International.
Newton, L. (2008). Illegal, alien, or immigrant: The politics of immigration reform. New York: New York Univ. Press.
Rachbauer, M. (2008).Immigration policy in the USA. New York: GRIN Verlag.
Rosenblum, M. (2011). US immigration policy since 9/11: Understanding the stalemate over comprehensive immigration reform. Migration Policy Institute. Retrieved from: http://www.migrationpolicy.org/pubs/RMSG-post-9-11policy.pdf
Vita, C., & Ervin, L. (2012).Latino organizations and immigration integration in the Washington, DC, region. Research in the race and ethnic relations, 17, 155-180.
West, D. M., & Brookings Institution. (2010). Brain gain: Rethinking U.S. immigration policy. Washington, D.C: Brookings Institution Press.