September 23, 14
Slavery is one of the issues that was, is and has been a major concern in the world. The nature of contemporary slavery is unknown, but estimates show that there are millions of victims of slavery across the globe. Slavery covers a wide variety of human rights violations such as sexual mutilation of men, women and children, child prostitution, sale of orphans, child pornography and many others. On the other hand, human trafficking is an area of concern that involves recruiting, transporting, buying or selling a person by means of force or fraud for the purpose of commercial sexual exploitation or forced labor. Human trafficking deprives the victims of their human rights, and is one of the causes for the spread of sexually transmitted diseases such as AIDS.
Slavery and human trafficking is global threats and they also lead to organized crime, violation of laws and an opportunity for terrorism. The majority of human trafficking are worldwide, which involves the transportation of victims from Africa, South and Eastern Asia, Central and South America, Russia and other developing countries to developed countries in Asia, the Middle East, North America and central and southeastern countries of the European continent. It is the Asia-Pacific region where a majority of the world’s forced laborers come from followed by Africa. The Asia-Pacific region contributes 56% or 11.7 million victims, while Africa accounts 18% or 3.7 million victims of human trafficking. The meltdown of the global economy in the recent times has given rise to an increase in contemporary slavery. About 26 percent of modern slaves are children below the age of 18 years, out of which girls are the victims of child prostitution and pornography.
Though the communities and NGO’s that have analyzed the risk factors and identified the vulnerable groups prone to human trafficking, the lack of job opportunities at home and easy access to wealthier markets lures some people into human trafficking. Recently, the United States analyzed that out of the total number of men, women and children trafficked into international trade, 79 percent are victims of commercial sexual exploitation and 18 percent are victims of forced labor. Hence, there is a high necessity to confront the crisis of human trafficking and implement every possible measure to identify and rescue the victims. Human trafficking has become the fastest growing crime in the world. Recognizing an issue is the first step to solving the problem. Stopping human trafficking is possible through education and creating awareness around the world.
The human traffickers succeed by using fraudulent documents and advanced techniques of communication technologies. The personal contacts of the traffickers with other traffickers due to the use of technology to pose a threat as well as a challenge for government officials and agencies that enforce law and regulation of the country. Enforcement of international laws in regards to human trafficking best works when regional and domestic legislations join the cause. Some of the examples of such international laws that have regional involvement are the United States Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act (2000), the European Convention for the Protection of Human Right and Fundamental Freedoms (1950) and the Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings (2008).
In the Unites States, the Human Smuggling, Trafficking Center (HSTC) serves as a fusion for information related to human smuggling and human trafficking. HSTC brings together officers and investigators from federal agencies such as the CIA, ICE, FBI and the Department of Homeland Security. There are several NGOs that participate in combating human trafficking and rescuing the victims. Public awareness develops an idea about how people can save themselves from traffickers. Without comprehensive laws, officials cannot have the required jurisdiction to arrest, prosecute, and convict the traffickers. The laws should reflect the full weight of the offense. They should follow a victim-centered approach and protect the victims from any kind of assault. Human trafficking involves supply and demand, identifying the demand helps to integrate the approach of eliminating human trafficking.
Human trafficking exposes the victims to health risks and deadly diseases such as HIV, AIDS, tuberculosis, hepatitis and several other transferable diseases. It also causes several health problems such as pregnancy, forced abortion and other health-related complications. Victims of human trafficking endure brutal situations, which result in psychological trauma and mental disorders. Depression, sleep disorders, phobias and panic attacks are common in trafficking victims. The victims also suffer the feelings of helplessness, humiliation or cultural shock for living in a strange country without any form of identity. Malnourishment is common in child victims. The denial of social and moral development in children results in growth and developmental problems. The victims of human trafficking also suffer sexual violence, which forces them to take harmful drugs. Human trafficking ultimately leads to injury, disease and death.
Human trafficking causes severe losses to public health economically and is a potential to spread diseases globally. Identifying the victims and rescuing them is the main key to preventing human trafficking, which in turn reduces costs to the healthcare system. Human trafficking is a form of organized crime. It involves a hierarchical system, which is similar to that of other criminal organizations. The traffickers represent every social, racial and ethnic group. Some traffickers are involved with local gangs, while others are members are part of nationally recognized gangs and organizations. Some traffickers are independent and do not have any affiliation with other gangs or organizations. Traffickers exist irrespective of gender. There are several women in human trafficking activities along with men. Several young girls living on the streets, engage in prostitution. Some of them are involved in nationwide organized criminal activities where the organizers of crime force these young girls into human trafficking. It is problematic to enforce anti-trafficking laws because in most of these cases, the victims do not tell the identity of the traffickers with the fear of being harmed.
Since human trafficking is a global problem, convicting a person in another country by means of the international laws involves several costs. Also, human trafficking is not a single event and it violates several laws. Charging a case against the traffickers involves a great deal of time, energy and resources. There are limited information available from the researchers due to advocacy biases. Human trafficking is a global concern, which involves law enforcement, health and human rights. It involves billions of dollars and millions of victims forced into slavery and slavery-related conditions. Although human trafficking is a complex problem, it is possible to curb the issue. Two centuries ago, the citizens of the United States and Britain organized the abolitionist movement to abolish African slavery. The primary focus was the slave trade, which led to the abolition of slavery.
In the present time, it is important for the citizens of the world to coordinate and collaborate towards the common goal of abolishing human trafficking and contemporary slavery. Some of the countries, such as the United States already started the implementation of several awareness programs for the law enforcement officers. NGOs across the globe also took keen interest and participation in raising awareness about monitoring human trafficking. Establishing a hotline number in each country to identify and help the trafficking victims is an approach that could help in fighting human trafficking. Human trafficking is a form of contemporary slavery, which occurs more often than we can imagine. The issue is not an international or a national concern, but a local concern. It is a huge business that involves several victims. It is the responsibility of law enforcement agencies on all levels to stay alert on human trafficking and address it. It is also the duty of the local officers to recognize the issue in their jurisdictions and take necessary action. Law enforcement organizations must take part in trying to convict the perpetrators and rescue the victims.
Modern Slavery in Romania
It is sickening that still there are some forms of slavery. It is the twenty-first century, and alarming issues concerning slavery should not be happening. Slavery was normal and common practice in the past. However, hearing about it in the present is absurd. Recent studies indicate that almost thirty million people are victims of slavery worldwide. Romania tops the list for the third consecutive year. This is worrying; therefore, Romania’s key stakeholders and the government must take necessary action in attempting to reduce human trafficking.
Contemporary slavery in Romania happens in the form of human trafficking. Human traffickers exploit victims in several ways, including sexual harassment, forced begging and forced labor (Nicola et al. 219). Deceived men, women and children find themselves cornered in slavery without their knowledge, hence, it is significant to introduce stringent measures to stop these inhumane acts. According to the U.S. State Department of Trafficking in Persons report, Romanian men, women and children are trafficked both within the country and outside the country. In the hands of the oppressors, they find themselves in force commercial sex, forced labor and forced begging. This is alarming for the Romanian citizens because they are unsure about the job offers available in their country. As far as human rights are involved, the government should pull its resources together to ensure the citizens are enjoying their human rights. The Romanian government and other key stakeholders must take countless efforts to curb the problem. In such a century, everybody should respect human rights in any form as he or she affect both the victims and the country’s reputation negatively.
Concrete Solutions That Will Help To Solve the Human Trafficking In Romania
- What the Romanian Government Should Do?
The government should train the public on human trafficking red flags. The government should take the initiative of teaching the public about human trafficking signs and the effective follow-up procedures (Kara, 89). Human trafficking awareness training will help discover such acts at the root level where they are happening. It will have the effect of scaring traffickers away because they know they are under the searchlight.
Human trafficking is a form of human right infringement. Traffickers deprive innocent citizens of their rights. It happens in the form of forced labor, sexual harassment and forced begging. The act is similar to rape cases, which is also a criminal offense. Stringent law enforcement amounting to abnormal penalties is necessary to warn the human traffickers (Kara, 78). It is an advisable move since human traffickers will be scared away.
The administration should support anti-trafficking organizations. Anti-trafficking organizations assist the government in fighting modern slavery. To remain valid and relevant, such organization should receive a considerable governmental support (US Department of State, n.d). This can be in the form of financial resources and trainings. By so doing, formation of strong anti-slavery groups will result. The result will be reduced human trafficking activities.
Stakeholders can set up easily accessible Google alerts. They can instate Google alarms that have a connection to all security agencies in the country. In case a human trafficking activity is noted, there will be lesser efforts in terms of bringing the issue to the security agencies. Such alarms will enable quick action, hence saving victims as early as possible.
Strong inter-departmental ministerial group on human trafficking can help prevent the vice. The Romania government should ensure that this ministry is capable and composed of skillful individuals with the necessary expertise on human trafficking. The group is entitled to carry out assessments of trends inhumane trafficking, gathering statistics, measuring anti-trafficking actions and reporting to the public on a regular basis. A strong ministry will direct its efforts towards curbing the modern slavery problem.
Finally, the government should ensure that its security agencies are effective and well trained on how to deal with human traffickers. Security agencies, like police and the army, are responsible for the country’s security issues. Modern slavery in the form of human trafficking is an insecurity issue. Well-versed security agencies with knowledge regarding modern slavery can apply it in an attempt to stop it. Quality security agencies will reduce human trafficking activities throughout the country.
b. What Romania’s Key Stakeholders Should Do?
Non-governmental organizations should engage in the employment processes. It is their duty to ensure that their supply chains contain no element of human trafficking. They should incorporate human trafficking information in their professional association’s trainings, manuals, conferences and other relevant materials (US Department of State). Employees should be aware of the disadvantages of human trafficking.
Members of the public must start grass root anti-trafficking coalitions. The truth is that human trafficking affects members of the public. Citizens of Romania should form anti-trafficking coalitions aimed at warning human traffickers. Moreover, it will offer citizens an excellent opportunity to learn human trafficking red flags and their reporting.
In learning institutions, modern slavery in the form of human trafficking affects children as well. Human trafficking information should be included in the education system right from lower class levels to universities. They should have information on the potential adverse effects associated with the act. Upon reaching adulthood, they would have developed negative attitudes towards this kind of slavery. Many who could otherwise be human traffickers will deviate from such acts.
For medical providers (Mental health providers), human trafficking is real in Romania. It happens on a regular basis. Victims end up with long lasting psychological problems and other health complications. Mental health providers should offer free or subsidized health services to victims assisted by nearby anti-trafficking institutions (Chuang, 2006). It will help victims in quick recovery, which is an advantage to their well-being.
For the inter-governmental organizations, member states of IGOs should put considerable efforts in addressing modern slavery and human trafficking. Human trafficking in Romania happens both within and without the country. It affects more than Romania alone. If IGOs direct their efforts towards educating and warning their country citizens against slavery, they will help in stopping this inhuman act. They should pool their efforts together and come up with long lasting solutions to human trafficking. A good example is authorizing legal actions against member states’ citizens in any country as long as it is a member state.
According to the aforementioned facts, human trafficking in Romania raised concerns recently. For the third consecutive year, it ranked as the leading country in the UK with the highest modern slavery activities. Human trafficking is ever rising. Hence, stringent measures are necessary to curb this occurrence. For it to complete termination, pooled efforts are required from both the government and other key stakeholders (Chuang 116). If the above solutions are put into practice, the act will be healed and might seize existing if the near future.
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