This paper has discussed the relationship between slangs and the society The paper is based on the argument that people use slangs in order to demonstrate their membership with a particular class or a culture. Slang can be defined as the information language, which is created for a specific purpose. However, slang is not used by all people in a society (Moore, Bindler & Pandich, 2010). Slang is made by people, themselves. Once slang becomes a trend, it is also introduced to other societies. In the modern society, slang is used to express ideas and feelings. It is also used to make a conversation more interesting to the audience (Ings, 2010).
The variants of social differences in languages are known as sociolects. If sociolects are associated with the high class of the society, they are considered the part of jargon. In other cases, they are known as slangs. A slang expression can be any old word with a new meaning. Slangs can be classified into three types including common slang, argot, and secret slang. The common slang refers to different words, which emerge in the modern society. Common slang is used by many people and Argot is another type of slang, which is used by limited number of people (Moore, Bindler & Pandich, 2010). This kind of language is used by specific groups in the society; for instance criminals, to communicate with each other. The third kind i.e. secret slang is similar to the argot in such a manner that both are used by specific groups of people for conversations. However, the difference between these slangs is that argot can be understood by people outside a specific group (Ings, 2010).
There are many ways, which can used to express something. Language allows people to express themselves in their own ways. The language variations are created by people in order to differentiate themselves from other societies. One of the variables, which are developed by a particular society for expressions, is slanging (Ings, 2010).
Purpose of the Study
This study aims to explain the use of slangs by subcultures in the society
Slangs are an inevitable part of the modern society, which are used by people to identify with a particular group or class.
Language and Society
Language can be defined as a system of verbal symbols. With the help of language, people and community interact and express their ideas and thoughts. A society can be defined as a group of people, who live together for a specific purpose (Ings, 2010). Recently there has been widespread use of slang vocabulary all around the modern societies regardless of social or professional affiliation, age and communicative features whether it is public speaking, business communication or informal setting (Moore, Bindler & Pandich, 2010). Many researchers consider the process of modern speech as a kind of reaction to the recent standardization and smoothed" impersonality of public speaking saturated with propaganda clichés. In addition, youth slang sometimes even sees a weapon of struggle with the totalitarian language.
Language variation consists of different linguistic terms. The linguistic variations exist because of the presence of different linguistic styles used by different people in a society. Dialect refers to the differences between different language varieties in terms of pronunciation, usage of words, syntax, and others. The dialect is present in every language because it is impossible to speak without using dialect (Ings, 2010). Style is another variation in language, which refers to the use of different linguistic forms in order convey social effects. Style also refers to a set of instructions. It is further divided into different elements to convey messages about desires, moods, social status, and others (Ings, 2010).
Jargon can be defined as the language used by specific groups of people. Jargons are used by professionals of a specific field. For example, there are jargons for medical practitioners as well as for legal experts. In today youth, jargon reflects the process of change in society including the removal of the prohibitions of censorship, the growing influence of the language of the criminal world and expanding the scope of oral unprepared speech, it had an impact on the new generation. However, it is a direct reflection and expression in language of the young generation. Several young people perceive "their own", as usual common words, not knowing that they came from thieves' language. However, on the other hand, jargon reflects trends that are important to the modern language as a whole and without a comprehensive study of the linguistic description of the modern Russian language will be incomplete. The study of this linguistic material is interesting and in some sense necessary because this kind of "language within language" exists in not only speech but also functions on the pages of newspapers and magazines. Therefore, the study of slang should be concerned not only to linguists but also to sociologists, psychologists, teachers, and society as a whole and it underscores the relevance of the research produced. The more importantly that several studies relied primarily on data including quantitative and evidence gathered from different regions that showed independence, novelty and practical significance of the work.
Slang is also a way to express membership in a society. However, as compared to other forms, it is non-standard. The duration of slang is temporary. When a particular slang term becomes common, the members of a group change that term in order to maintain their distinctiveness from the larger society.
Register refers to linguistic variations, which are associated with a particular profession or occupation. Registers are characterized with differences in vocabulary. Colloquial speech is an ordinary and relaxed form of speech. It refers to the appropriations by individuals in different circumstances; for instance, when writing essays or giving interview. Slang refers to the informal speech, which is aimed at conducting conversations among specific people in a society. Slangs are the part of subculture, and are often used by drug users, musicians, and skateboarders. Slang can be defined as the non-standard form of expressing group of membership and distinguish one group from the other. Slang plays an important role in recognizing the members, who belong to the same group. The use of slangs also differentiates one group from the other (Danesi, 2012).
Society is divided into a dominant culture and different subcultures. The subcultures possess specialized processes, which differ widely in terms of content and form. The slang terms are often created by subcultures. There are some slang words, which introduce new concepts while others provide new expressions. Slangs develop in the subculture when certain words become dead in the dominant culture of the society. Some slang words are just latent ideas in the dominant culture (Roth-Gordon, 2007).
Slangs are used for several purposes. However, the general purpose of slangs is to express emotional attitude. The slangs also express opposite attitudes of people. The slang terms promote the identification of a certain class or a group. English language has been changing continuously. It has been changing since the beginning of languages in the society. The most important factor, which has encouraged changes in language, is the freedom of speech. Slangs are used by people, in the modern society, to express them freely. Slangs are often used by teems to demonstrate their unique status. In the society, usually negative assumptions are associated with slangs and their use. The negative assumptions often prevail in the upper class of the society. In the modern society, slang is used in everyday communication and even in the streets. Slang is used by people to express them in a quick and unique manner (Roth-Gordon, 2009).
In online communication, the use of slang is particularly because of the shortage of time. People often rely on the Internet communication in order to save time. The use of slang allows them to communicate in an informal manner as well as in a short time period. During the last few decades, the Internet has been developed as an institution. It has allowed its users to communicate with each other in a matter of a few minutes. The newly created slang terms are quickly dispersed in a wide geographic area. The use of Internet slang is common among teenagers. Teenagers use Internet slang in order to increase the speed of conversation (Roth-Gordon, 2009).
The use of Internet slang has been gaining popularity because of different reasons. There are several advantages of using Internet slang including time saving, novel meanings, and others. The use of Internet slang allows users to avoid punctuation mistakes and capitalizations. The use of Internet slang creates much confusion. The users avoid using vowels in words, which makes it difficult for people to understand. The understanding of slang is particularly difficult for people who are not aware of slang terms (Roth-Gordon, 2009).
In the modern society, people are not only using slang in written communication but also in spoken language. This indicates that the English language is going through major transformation. Despite the fact that the use of the Internet slang allows users to save time, the reader is required to spend much time on understanding (Reyes, 2005).
The Internet slang is a part of modern society, which cannot be ignored. The extensive use of Internet slang is harmful for students and young children who are in the stages of language learning. When students use the short forms and slangs, they do not develop the grasp for language. Furthermore, these students are also likely to make language, punctuation, and sentence structure mistakes in English writing. The continual use of slangs can also affect the pronunciation of students. The use of Internet slang also has social consequences. The parents are, usually, unaware of different slang terms and their implications. In such situations, the students and children often become victims of online predators who try to attract children to their websites. The excessive use of Internet slang also creates communication gap between parents and children. The best way to avoid this problem is to minimize the use of Internet slang and encourage children and students to use proper language (Moore, Bindler & Pandich, 2010).
The increase in the use of online conversations is leading towards the development of an entire new language. Currently, it is not possible to determine the consequences of Internet slang in a proper manner. However, it is clear that the increased acceptance of Internet slang in the modern society must be identified and analyzed by educators. The educators are required to play a critical role in this regard. They can play their part by teaching students the importance of using appropriate language particularly in the formal gatherings. It is important for students to learn that the use of Internet slang is only acceptable in online conversations but it is not appreciated in formal written conversations. The use of Internet slangs seems inappropriate in business writings (Ings, 2010).
It has also been found from the studies that students have started to use Internet slangs in their assignments and homework. There are many students, who have started to use emoticons in their writing. This is the time when the educators must play their role and tell students the difference between formal and informal writings. Students, who spent much time on social networking websites, are more likely to use Internet slang in their schoolwork (Mazrui, 1995).
In the modern society, the culture has an impact on the use of language used by people. The culture has an impact on the use of slang in online communication and text messages. The slang is used by youngsters in order to associate themselves with a particular group of the society. There are different ways through which different words can be interpreted. The role of culture is important in this regard (De Klerk & Keith, 2006). Culture consists of different rules, norms, and shared meanings. The culture consists of different symbols, which are different in different culture. The culture has an important impact on the perceptions of people about a word. The culture also affects the way the community shares beliefs and thoughts. The certain terms and words, used in a community allow people to develop a sense of familiarity with each other. The words actually reflect and represent the thoughts and perceptions of people and their culture. The development of slang words shapes the collective view of a culture (Fox, Fertleman, Cahill and & Palmer, 2003).
Modern American English is heterogeneous phenomenon and its existing territorial variants at the end of 20th century clearly distinguished such relevant component. This era distinguishes Modern American English as a general American slang having marginal status being an integral part of the language and culture of American society. Thus, the general American slang is a special phenomenon serving American society from the beginning of 21st century. Formation of such phenomenon is common American slang contributed to various sources. The most important of which, according to most researchers are jargons underclass as well as a literary language. Contribution to the formation of slang makes the most diverse groups of society, regardless of education, profession or social status.
In the analysis of the distinguishing features of the general American slang, it was found that in contrast to the literary language, slang for linguistic signs characteristic has rough-familiarity, witty, ironic or dismissive coloring. Such characteristics of slang are primarily due to the reasons for its direct use among which are the pursuit of individuality, expressiveness and shorts words. Slang is characterized by a lack of stability, lexical and phrase structure; however, it is constantly updated. This fact is explained that slang is implemented primarily in the living colloquial speech, which reflects all the changes taking place in public life. For some units of General American slang characteristic, stability and long life shows the flexibility of this phenomenon.
As an integral component of conversational speech in the United States, a common American slang is widely used in communication processes; therefore, it is expressed by various slang communicative intentions. The analysis of extensive array of syntactic units of general American slang in a communicative aspect allows us to conclude that all the basic communicative intention, namely declarative, interrogative intention and motivation to action are expressed in units of general slang. Slang expression using different units of communicative intentions in some cases is similar to their expression in the literary language, but in most cases, the unit slang exhibits certain specific features.
One of the key features of units of American slang is their emotionality. In slang form of emotional communication, statements largely dominate other communication types, which confirm the position that emotion is the leading communicative aspect of this phenomenon as a common American slang. Emotionality is slang special ways of expressing both the lexical and syntactic level. At the level of tokens, primary means of expression of emotion is affixation. At the syntactic level to the means of expression of the communicative aspect of the emotional plane, primarily include word-intensifiers, wordless and preposition. Analysis of syntactic constructions of American slang terms of modal aspect showed that such a modus category as modality is reflected in many slang terms, and has its own idiosyncrasies, principal of which there are 138 expression values based on moral imperative syntax.
Research in the field of general American slang such an important communicative linguistic phenomena as transposition shows that slang syntax is characteristic of the transition from one communication medium to another. Material analysis confirms that the main type of transposition of slang is to move different types of statements in the functional communicative environment emotional offers, which once again confirms that emotion should recognize leading communicative aspect of this phenomenon as a common American slang. Pragmatic analysis of the communicative contexts confirms that the USA population actively regardless of age and social status uses the common American slang.
The arguments, presented in this paper, have led to the conclusion that slangs are an inevitable part of the modern society. They are largely used by subcultures in the society. The members of a particular subculture use slangs to show that they belong to that group of class. The example of Hip Hop culture has been used in this paper to discuss how the culture has gained popularity among youngsters.
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