Many different psychologists have theorized about the human mind and how unconsciousness plays a part in how we react to these thoughts or behaviors. Personally I feel that the theories put forth by Jung present the most complete picture and reflects how I view unconsciousness affects the thought process. The theories of Jung represent an innovative approach to therapy and how we understand human nature. Jung proposes that our mind is more complex than we may have previously thought.
Most humans experiences these theories in some way nearly every day. Individuals are constantly working to categorize and analyze the personalities around them. Distinguished psychologists such as Sigmund Freud, Adler and Carl Jung have developed their own more scientific means of determining unconscious theory by identifying separate unique traits ("The study of,"pg.3).
In determining the importance of theory one must relied mainly upon the evaluation of the degree of influence that theory has had upon the relevant research (Hall & Lindzey, 1957, pg.572). This process also determines the issue of individuality (Hall & Lindzey, 1957, pg.572). Hall implicates that when theories appear to be similar, that one should examine only one theory and eliminate the others from study (Hall & Lindzey, 1957, pg.572). However, for the purpose of this research paper we will be concentrating on the similarities and differences of behavioral and biological theory.
Jung theorizes that the unconsciousness produces symbols that can relate messages. Personal unconscious usually results in dreams or other unrecognized behaviors. Jung feels that there is a reason why we dream. Collective unconsciousness are themes that are universal to all humans. Both concepts speak of thoughts that lie below the surface of humanity; these actions are typically forgotten of pushed back in our conscious mind (Schultz & Schultz, 2009).
Jung’s neopsychoanalytical theory relates that a patient can work to improve their own consciousness for their personal betterment (Boeree). He emphasizes find a harmony between to conscious and unconscious mind. Collectively we as a society share experiences that are passed down throughout generations. For example, all humans have a mother, we know mothers to be nurturers and caregivers. We are taught this from other generations with shared experiences. Other unconscious thoughts such as a fear of snakes, fear of the dark, or religious beliefs are not something we are born with but something we are taught. Most primitive beliefs are considered to be “archetypes” (Baker, 2010).
Individuality means that one must face their personal unconsciousness in order to find themselves and follow their own dreams versus universal systems of thought. Jung feels that being an individual is one’s main goal in life (Schultz & Schultz, 2009). He also feels that we are not as deterministic and rely more heavily on free will than many of his predecessors. Based on the accusations made by Jung one would assume that we desire to suppress collective unconsciousness and activate personal consciousness.
Adlerian Therapy stresses a positive view of human nature with the idea that we are in control of our own fate and not a victim to it. Alderians try determining what makes people unique and correct mistaken assumptions. The process intervention usually involves life-style analysis. The therapist tries to understand the client’s life-style, and how it is effecting their current situations. In Adler's theory of change, the therapist uses different techniques that help the person to identify their needs. Every person is unique; and each technique must also fit that particular person. The therapist’s role is to present values that the client may wish to use in their own life. It is the client’s responsibility to determine their goals, while the therapist suggests how they can accomplish them. The client must make a conscience decision to control their own fate.
Freud’s unconscious theory is based on the idea that all humans are driven by instinct and drives. One article describesFreud’s theory, "primitive impulses," of which the sexual impulse is the strongest, are sublimatedr "diverted" towards other goals that are "socially higher and no longer sexual" (15.23). Our instincts and primitive impulses are thus repressed/” In other words our conscious self is influences by societal standards but our unconscious mind is driven by more primal urges.
In conclusion, Jung’s theories of unconsciousness tie in directly to neopsychoanalytical theory. He uses unconsciousness to explain why we seek free-will and individuality. In order to better ourselves, Jung feels we need to first better our unconscious thoughts. Psychologists have been examining different unconscious theories for many years, but with recent emergence of new scientific data and data collection methods, new theories are being explored. Researchers are not typically conforming to one particular theory, but instead working to see how all of the theories work together. The method of isolating one theory from another has become outdated. Recent literature reflects this newfound interest in mutability and the desire to explore personality with scientific collaborators instead of isolation. However the theories by these men are still widely accepted and have led to further research on the topics.
Baker, K. (2010). the study of personality: Assessment, research, and theory.
Boeree, C. (n.d.). Carl jung . Retrieved from http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/jung.html
Hall, C., & Lindzey, S. (1957). Theories of personality. American Psychological Association, 572. Retrieved from http://psycnet.apa.org/index.cfm?fa=search.displayRecord&uid=2006-03537-000
Schultz, D., & Schultz, S. (2009). Theories of personality. (9th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning.