Urbanization is the transformation of the system of production, division of labor among the participants in that production, and the rewards factors of production get from the product. The key issue in the analysis of urban problems, whether in the third world or elsewhere, revolves around occupation and class (Alberto, 1986). In Bangladesh, urbanization as a process affects the population management and the quality of life of the urban population. People see role of urbanization as a process that can enhance effective population management and improve quality of life. However, urbanization can erode quality life and standard of living depending on the competence of the process employed within a system. The evaluation of urbanization in Bangladesh requires consistent and careful deliberation.
Positive results of urbanization
Firstly, urbanization acts an agent of transformation and innovation especially in developing countries (Alberto, 1986). As the cities such as Dhaka and Chittagong have new ideas, communication and innovation, they spread these to the immediate lands as well as in the whole country through urban –rural links. While innovation tends to flow from urban to rural areas, the link does not exist wholly in the country; thus, a big disparity between cities and slumburbia. Most people term Dhaka as a city of change, which from evident in the migrants who move from home to home visits, and even those who are in urban will move increasing awareness among the people and encourage them to adopt innovations (Mosley, John & Arjan, 1972). For example, Dhaka has shown diverged aspects of change in terms of innovation and transformation such as the Brac social innovation lab.
Cities in Bangladesh have acted as fountains of scientific and technical knowledge over the years, which produce innovations required for modernization and development of the country. People cannot separate the history of scientific and technological innovation from the history of cities (Michael, 2001). Cities such as Dhaka and Chittagong have transformed the country in terms of knowledge with multiple universities and colleges based in the region. For example, Dhaka university, Bangladesh National University in Dhaka, Asian University of Women and Chittagong University in Chittagong.
Likewise, urbanization reduces mortality drastically since people in urban areas have access to water and social amenities unlike people in rural areas. Most cities in Bangladesh have come up with plans to provide social overheads to urban populations, a move that has greatly reduced mortality rates. People with no access or limited access to social overheads experience high mortality and low expectancy rates. People living in cities across Bangladesh have lower mortality rates than people living in rural areas (International Monetary Fund, 2012)
Negative results of urbanization in Bangladesh
Urban areas such as Dhaka, Chittagong, Khulna, and Comilla have for the past years contributed greatly to carbon emissions in the country. Bangladesh is home to numerous garment industries that continue to affect environment in negative ways. The problem has resulted to degradation in the urban environment.
Urbanization has led to the rise of slums in Bangladesh such as Karail, Lalbagh, and Mohammadpur (Michael, 2001). The slums have led to lack of social amenities and services to majority of people. In addition, the slums have created extreme pressure on housing and urban services like education and other services. In the recent past, leading towns have experienced a rise in the general costs of goods and services because of increased population and rise of slums.
Urbanization has resulted to increased violence and crime especially during the night. Lack of proper lights in avenues and lanes have greatly added to the increased violence and crimes in towns. The high population has led to increased crime, violence, drug trafficking and corruption in many industrialized cities. The country lags behind in the fight against crime and drug trafficking since majority of its citizens live in deplorable states.
Actions of the government
The government of Bangladesh has for the recent past committed itself to effective and considerate measures to alleviate elements that arise because of urbanization. In attempting to evaluate the efficiency of donor fund, Bangladesh focuses on the effect of FDI flow on the GDP. The high population in urban areas has forced the government to develop means of tackling the issues of urbanization through FDIs. Together with the private sector, the government has introduced numerous measures to alleviate poverty, crime, and drug trafficking in urban areas. The government has introduced such measures as Police-youth liaison, suicide prevention programs, recreation facilities, employment programs, safety audits, and target hardening all in line to rid the cities off crimes and corruption. In fact, donor funds act as catalyst to develop the country from an LDC to a middle-level country.
Although the country lags behind in research for possible measures of engagement with foreign partners, it has used the borrowed money effectively to tackle issues of poverty and crime in urban areas. In addition, the country has conducted less research on the effect of FDI and donor fund on the development of human resource. Yet, donor partners have increased the funding to include industrial developments. The country has tried to fulfill its obligations of poverty and crime eradication. This has greatly reduced poverty and crime in most urban centers. The country has demonstrated that other countries can use FDIs to develop human resource and reach the MDGs goals. FDIs in Bangladesh have shown to reduce poverty, infant mortality and greatly increase education levels (Boone, 1996).
While there have been many successful examples of cooperation among the Bangladesh and the donor the nation still have development problems. In spite of the increased FDI in the country, the country still lags behind in realizing effective social welfare. The environmental problem remains a big threat to the country despite donor funds. The country has signed treaties such as North Pacific Fur Seal Treaty that has not managed to alleviate environmental problems in the country (Boone, 1996). Biological diversity, ozone depletion and climate change remain elements of engagements in the country.
Over the years, Bangladesh has received donor funds to alleviate the problems associated with urbanization. However, the country experiences pollution, crime, and poverty greatly. The country continues to engage donor partners for more funds to alleviate poverty and crime in entirety.
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