It is a generally well-accepted reality that Miami is a multicultural city. This place has always been not dominated by White Caucasian Americans, but also of Latinos, Mexicans, and in more recent decades, of Middle Eastern, Slavic and Asian cultures as well. In this regard, it may be an accurate assessment that catering to a single market share, by way language usage, may prove to be disadvantageous to any business entity in Miami, given that there is a high probability that clients or customers will be limited to a particular culture that speaks the same language as the proprietor. Hence, the purpose of this annotated bibliography is to establish the necessity of using the English language in business establishments in Miami in order to maximize the businesses’ effectiveness and influence.
The research question which will serve as a guide to this annotated bibliography is: ‘How does using Standard English affect businesses in Miami, Florida’? In order to maximize my understanding on this issue, I used journal articles that are focused on the effects and consequences of the English language in a professional setting, the rate that non-English native speakers learn the language, the historical aspect of influx of various races into Miami and Florida in general, and the importance of the English language according to the very viewpoints of corporate managers in Miami. Consequently, I have learned that focusing on a larger area of topic is very effective in gaining knowledge about the research question I mentioned earlier. These resource materials include journal articles either from academic scholars, or those who are involved in Miami and in American employment whose works delve on the impact of using English. Admittedly, I encountered some difficulty in finally realizing that concentrating solely on the English language aspect will likewise limit my paper’s topics, and may fail to provide suitable background information to the readers. Nevertheless, I intend to further my research and include some aspects in the final research version of this annotated bibliography, such as the actual sales differences of businesses that cater only to an English-speaking only clientele, whether these businesses are as successful as their multi-language counterparts, and if loyalty to one’s native race is a deterrent for clients’ preference.
Portes, Alejandro. “English-only Triumphs, but the Costs are High.” Contexts 1 (2002): 10-15. Web. 1 March 2016.
The purpose of Portes’ article is to emphasize the importance of using only the English language in academic setting in order to preserve and protect cultural unity in the United States. The targeted audience of Portes’ article is every person residing in America, regardless of race. Several races are used as example in this article, such as Asians, Italians and the Latinos. Special mention is provided in the case of Florida in terms of the positive aspect of learning the English language, in that those who master both their native tongues and English are found to be more successful in their endeavors. Portes’ article is useful in my research paper because it proves that Businesses in Miami can be more productive when they use the English language, given that almost 92% people in the U.S. are exclusive English speakers.
Brush, Barbara, Sochalski, Julie, and Anne Berger. “Imported Care: Recruiting Foreign Nurses to US Health Care Facilities.” Health Affairs 23.3 (2004): 78-87. Print.
This article by Brush, Sochalski and Berger is a medical report on the trend of retaining and increasing recruitment of healthcare workers in the United States. This is significant given that recent estimates warn of an impending shortage of nurses in the next twenty years. The target audiences of this article are the current foreign nursed in America, those who intend to specialize in nursing and the health care profession in general. This is significant given that since the year 2000 foreign nurses’ recruitment in California and New York has been in a steady decline, and had been replaced by Florida, among others. In this regard, the prospect of profitability among agencies necessitate that the foreign nurses who are hired by health institutions in Miami and other major cities, are fluent English speakers, since they are expected to provide health care using only the English language and not their mother tongue.
Castro, Max. “On the Curious Question of Language in Miami.” UNR.edu (1992): 178-186. Web. 1 March 2016.
The purpose of this article is to emphasize the importance of English language as a unifying cultural force in Miami. This is significant since it is in Miami where the modern English-Only originated, and that The Greater Miami Chamber of Commerce in 1980 has once allocated $50,000 for the repulsion of bilingualism. More so, it was estimated that around 75% of Spanish-speaking people in Dade County threatened to move out if English-Only was implemented. As such, using the news reportage method, Castro effectively conveys a message that multilingualism in Miami causes disunity among its citizens. This article is very useful in this research because it presents the true social character of Miami, one which is composed of large minority groups each of which is proud of their own heritage. Gaining this understanding allows the readers to comprehend that offering exclusively English speaking services in Miami is feasible despite of its multicultural character, as what can be evidenced in Jeb Bush.
Morales, Miguel. “How to Make the Most of my Multicultural Workforce.” 42nd Florida Dairy Production Conference (2005): 22-28. Print.
This article by Morales delves on the important aspects that make for a good manager in a multicultural workforce. Morales works as a manager in Monsanto, and advises in a conference in Florida that managers need to overcome the language barrier and respect the individuality of each employee. In this regard, the purpose of Morales’ article is to educate the readers, especially businesses from multicultural communities such as Miami, on the need to develop a business culture that treats everyone as equal. Hence, it is my understanding that business culture in Miami should dictate speaking only in English, since this will ensure that all customers will be treated in the same manner as part of the American society, and not according to their racial background.
Chiswick, Barry, and Paul Miller. “Occupational Language Requirements and the Value of English in the U.S. Labor Market.” Leibniz Information Centre for Economics 2664 (2007): 1-33. Print.
This article by Chiswick and Miller presents their findings based on O-Net database, stating that employees’ wages are commensurate with their English proficiency skills. More so, the increase in earnings is larger in those foreign-born than those born in the United States. The two authors use scientific-type reportage in presenting their arguments, hence suggesting that their target audience is the labor sector. In this regard, it may be a safe premise that using English as a means of communication in Miami-based businesses is ultimately financially beneficial, given that these businesses will cater mostly to the more affluent members of the community regardless of their racial background.
Luo, Yadong, and Oded Shenkar. “The Multinational Corporation as a Multilingual Community: Language and Organization in a Global Context.” Journal of International Business Studies 37 (2006): 321-339. Web. 1 March 2016.
The significance of this article is that both the authors come from the School of Business Administration in the University of Miami, hence are highly knowledgeable of the unique social character of the said city. The purpose of Luo and Shankar’s article is to explain the complex mechanisms prevailing in multi-cultural companies, whereby a single language has to be used to communicate with all the racial backgrounds. As such, this implies that a single language which is dominant in a given locale has to be used to communicate to all members of a professional group. In addition, this article’s journalist approach makes it cater to educated readers, as what can be evidenced by the theoretic logic models and charts used to clarify certain issues in the article. In this aspect, using English in Miami’s business enterprises is essential given the generally American character of Miami despite of the major Latino part of the city’s population. English should be Miami’s ‘functional language’ because it is both the local language and the parent’s language.