In most countries, the primary goal of education among college students is the growth of a sense of citizenship. Earlier in society, education for the purpose of citizenship was an essential component for the maintenance of a critically thinking and well-informed society and this trend has made a re-emergence since the dawn of the 20th century . Throughout the course of history, education was perceived to be a means of protecting civil education from the hazards of curriculum overspecialization.
In order to realize the authorities responsible for the development of education, it is necessary to first understand ourselves. Higher education in recent times appears to be in an unstable position regarding its stance on social responsibilities. If this continues, it will indicate that the academic system is unsure about its social responsibilities. Both organizations and individuals must come to terms with the fact that responsibility stems from relationships. The growth of relationship is related to the strength of purpose of individuals; in a manner similar to how the way people relate to each other modify their aims . Successful and major institutions have made their mark through their ability to hold onto their sense of meaning and direction even in the face of significant shifts in the social landscape. They have proven to be helpful in offering direction to other institutions, enabling them to remain true to their respective purposes. Lately, however, major social change and economic shifts have shaken society to the core. Education now faces some serious threats that will test its resourcefulness to the maximum extent.
Education has exhibited signs of resourcefulness in the previous periods; it has completely reshaped itself through the formation of an innovative cluster of new universities, together with the metamorphosis of state and private heritage colleges. These innovative new institutions made an active effort to combine the best of European research ideas with the conventional American collegiate focus on the formation of future citizens and teaching. The most creative entities attempted to mediate the inevitable sense of tension that arose between curricular coherence and disciplinary specialization by highlighting the integrative role of their public academic mission.
Education made an entry into the 20th century with an announcement of its dedication to introducing powers of cultivated intellect to impact the social, economic and cultural life in a democratic society. The sense of mission maintained by the contemporary education system originated from liberal Protestantism. However, at its best, numerous aspirations of the system soared beyond the established parochial sectarian along with the entirely national. Most of the universities dedicated their services to important, panhuman ideals . But these great aims were shaped under the influence of the common prejudices as well as the patronage of the industry. The public, however, considered the mission of the academic system to be especially philanthropic and public. This past feeling of feeling purpose in the contemporary period can help re-establish the identity of the academy, resulting in renewed efforts to highlight to and for whom education is responsible .
Education has always cooperated with the initiatives of the nation to offer better educational opportunities to a greater section of the population. This fact has proved especially true in case of industrial nations. The academy in recent times, however, assumes diverse forms and has descended from different traditions, illustrating the pluralism of the institution. The advocates of civil engagement point out the fact that campuses not only effectively educate the students for citizenship but they serve as the sites for cooperation and constructive exchange among various groups of citizens from the greater community. None of these traditions can be deemed any less important but by considering the requirements of the communities which function beyond the limitations of the campus; institutions have drawn strength from the values of the past to gain a new form of energy that offers creative sparks of dedication to this intensive mission.
At the same time, it cannot be proved that historically defining aims of education are considerably alive to lead the education system down the right path in spite of the difficult era up ahead in the form of a period of reorganization. As soon as the issue of purpose is raised within the framework of education, it serves to divide, being a major rallying point. The influences on the academy from different external patrons come into direct conflict with other and the dissention within bubbles to the surface. This allows academic leadership to basically shelve the entire issue of identity as well as purpose instead of choosing to rely on bland managerialism. This strategy, however, seems to be less and less viable with the passage of time. The education system has fallen under hard times lately and it has been subjected to lots of scrutiny along with harsh attacks from angry critics. But this provides a powerful clue regarding what is inherently wrong from the sense of demoralization and drift that appears to be more and more common in the world of education .
Practical reason is responsible for the development of administration and academic thinking. There is a relation between the manner in which knowledge remains organized and institutional identity seems real. Efforts are constantly being made to connect education with the society using various methods consistent with democratic implications inherent in the concept of inquiry in the form of practical reason .
It is the responsibility of higher education to educate students for a life of responsibility as citizens instead of educating students mainly to build a successful career. This method will allow the academic institution to take pride in joining theory to practice in an attempt to meet challenges in society, especially those faced by universities located in the urban settings . If service is emphasized by the education system, it has the potential to enrich learning and renew communities. It will also prove instrumental in offering new forms of dignity to service.
Universities possess valuable resources that can be accessed by the community in times of need. Universities may even cater to their communities’ requirements by supporting the financial development of the region along with educational and wellbeing needs of the community. They can contribute directly to the cultural life of the community. Focusing on the value of community involvement as well as voluntary community service can even form a culture of service within the learning campus. From the perspective of programs, universities of higher learning can promote and support community partnerships. Several staff members, faculty, students have a responsibility in the community and the case is usually vice versa .
Academic programs often engage students within the community. Schools in particular offer different experimental learning opportunities for students. But the learning purposes of these activities usually focus on increasing the professional skills of a student and do not, either in a tacit or explicit manner, convey the importance of service inside the community along with lessons of civic responsibility .
Education happens to be a direct product of society and it contributes to society in equal measure. Philanthropy, being an essential part of society in recent times, is responsible for the development of education. Philanthropic practices are once again in vogue; the rich wish to donate and solve the problems of the world while the governments welcome the stream of new money, ideas and new service delivery methods despite unending criticism over the failings of the public sector organizations. The concept of philanthropy can be witnessed in the present education system in China where the government no longer supports the system constructed around “key schools” meant only for a small, elite section of the population along with its development to a more inclusive system of education where every student is expected to showcase better performances in every aspect. This has a direct impact on the pay scale of the teachers as well as upgrade of teacher education and teacher standards . In recent times, associations between philanthropy and aid have internationally blurred the divide between development, business enterprise and public good. It poses important questions about the future role and methods of traditional development agencies.
The market can be treated as a space for redemption along with a new source of alternative solutions to the problems of development. A reconfiguration of the field of education policy has taken place followed by a shift on the focus of ‘correcting for’ to ‘connecting to the market’. Education needs to adaptable, effective, reliable and capable of offering fast and efficient market-based solutions. A concomitant standardization of the entire system of education, teaching methods, evaluation and curriculum is formed through this approach and eliminates other forms of social transformation and educational intervention . Philanthropic networks manage to rework and repopulate the international policy of education within the community, connecting the activities and interests of enterprises, governments and non-governmental agencies in fresh ways .
There are doubts regarding the actual definition of responsibility though the term is commonly used in society. Responsibility may be blatant or there may exist some positive actions towards another since it is interred that a particular individual cannot be held responsible for some sort of painful state. Responsibility plays a guiding role in human conduct, even towards the way they perceive and approach the subject of education .
The role of education and responsibility are clearly evident through responsibility management education which is a voluntary initiative for the purpose of improving and extending corporate social responsibility and sustainability within the mainstream business-related education system. Responsibility management education appears to have its intellectual roots in the field of management literature and business. Thus, responsibility management education and its associated contexts are inherently connected to a scholarly background since that offers motivation for its development. The intermingling of responsibility and education in the context of education helps us understand the wave of change in management education in recent times .
Management can occur in the field of learning and stem from the need to be involved in a labour of constant self-justification in order to safeguard against the potential hazards of the education system. The self-evident success of audit is not enough to fulfil the social and intellectual responsibility that the education system bears toward students. At the level of schools, the most vital accountability relationships for the educators are the ones they share with students and parents, and the teachers, in turn, are therefore responsible to the students .
The role of educators in society cannot be discounted. They must believe in the dignity and worth of every human being and understand the supreme importance of the pursuit of truth, the cultivation of democratic principles in society as well as the devotion to excellence. The protection of the freedom to teach and learn is one of the major responsibilities of the educators and they guarantee equal educational opportunities to every individual. The educators appear to accept the responsibility to stick to the highest standards of morality .
In modern times, students are under constant pressure to perform and if they fail, they risk being labelled as irresponsible. Performativity happens to be a moral system that not only subverts but re-orients to meet its ends. It makes individuals responsible for their performance and for the performance of others and this is applicable in the education system even . Individuals tend to take responsibility for working even harder, faring better as part of their sense of personal worth as well as the worth of others. Being enterprising and responsible makes individuals receptive to change and these regulatory techniques are creating new public service episteme via a reshaping of integral social relations .
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