In the late 1960s, around the year 1968 and 1969, university students ganged up into coalitions that consequently came to bear the name Third World Liberation Front (TWLF). These coalitions were made of the African American, Asian American, Chicano and the Native American students who were enrolled in the several universities and colleges in America. These universities and colleges included San Francisco State College and University of California, which is found in Berkeley. The TWLF coalitions organized and led national student strikes, pushing for the establishment of Third World Colleges. Majority of these students were culprits of racism. In this regard, they united and in solidarity raised their voice against the vice in the various schools where such cases were evident. Consequently, the growing urge for strikes as a way through which students aired their discrepancies; programs that were based on Ethnic Studies were introduced. This acted as an accelerating force behind which the strikes worsened at the height of such programs.
The students who had suffered racism before ganged up to advocate for its eradication as well as oversee formulation and implementation of policies that ruled out occurrence of racism in America. Concerns of these students and the magnitude of the strikes that were organized spread all over the world, making history in the year 1969. This process was not without disadvantage and challenges. Many students were injured in the collision with the police force, while others were linked with criminal activities. The issue of human rights came into focus, during this period. Women had been mistreated and sexually mishandled like Ramon M. Serna and other women. This was considered to be the work of underground government agents who were put in place to deal with the then escalated processes of attaining equality between the students, aliens and the locals.
Crime fiction describes the basis upon which crimes take place. This genre of crime focuses on criminals, their motives and how criminals can be detected. Crime fiction is inter-related with other genres of fiction such science fiction, but the important point to consider is that different people define crime differently. On the other hand, detective fiction occurs in the context of crime. Crime fiction necessitates detective fiction due to the fact that there is need to investigate crimes (Corpi 324). As much as the investigations may remain public and the proceedings followed, there is the need for an under operation to unveil secrets that may not come to light in the normal process.
Detective or Crime novel and the story of Ramon M. Serna and other women
Ramon and other women were harassed and sexually abused in the midst of the events that unfolded during the Third World Students’ strike in the year 1969. Detective or crime novel is fundamental in the explanation of the abuse and ordeals that women went through during that period of unrest. Corpi uses this tool due to the structure that it takes in handling such issues. A crime novel is well structured to explain the process by which events unfold. First, there is the crime. What follows is investigation into the crime to determine who is responsible for that particular crime, and consequently determine the motive behind which the crime was committed. Finally, judgment is made. The crime novel therefore gives a clear outline, through which Corpi was able to present the suffering that Ramon and the other women experienced from undercover government agents Corpi says, “Ramona was being pulled against an unmarked police car while another cop stepped on Elizabeth’s hand and went ahead to hit her”. Arrests are made after which the judgment follows (Corpi 335). .
Importance of Writing the History and the Third World Aspect
Activists that were mainly composed of students were brought top unity by the coalitions that saw the establishment of the TWLF. The term “Third World” is significant to the activities that characterized America in the year 1969. This term is fundamental to the racial and colonial experiences that minority groups in the United States went through, especially students who were enrolled in Colleges and Universities in America. The American history had come into focus because such representation of interests by the minority in the United States of previously unheard of, although racism and colonialism on the minority was still evident. Acts of racism and colonialism that had been experienced includes slavery of Africans, native Indians genocide, colonization of Chicanos and the exclusion of the Asians (Norma 360).
Africa, Asia and Latin America were at the time considered third World countries. This meant that they less developed than the rest of the world. History had it that people from these countries were perceived to be less important than the people from the countries that were not ranked in the position of the three; “These people demean Chicano or Chicana writers. None of us is considered worthy to work in that company” (From: Corpi, 2004). In this regard aliens were treated with disrespect and perceived to be people that did not match the class of the United States (Gloria 245). The fundamental aspect of history came into focus at this juncture. This aspect is well outlined in the video Herbert’s Hippopotamus.
Activities that characterized the students’ strikes were dynamic and took various tactics. Major activities that were recorded to have to have taken place include blocking entrances of campuses, undertaking mass rallies, boycotting lectures and picketing. These activities did not go unnoticed as police forces came into action, arresting strike participants, using teargas on them while others faced disciplinary actions in their relevant school campuses. Consequently, measures were underway to seek the minimization of such incidences in the times that would follow. Ethnic studies were introduced in many colleges and universities all over the United States (Norma 365).
History has played a fundamental role in keeping these memories alive. Many generations have access to information that took place long before they came to be. These events have been kept alive by history which is passed from one generation to another over the years. The magnitude and effects of the strikes are still young in the minds of many. It is because of what was experienced some time back that the need for equity among the entire human race has been reliantly pursued. All this is owed to history, and therefore its importance and role in the 1969 events cannot be ignored.
According to Anzaldua’s Borderlands which gives an account for its fundamental theory of the Mestiza consciousness, and how it would set up the boarder identity for the Chicano people. The Anzaldua borderland demonstrates the articulation between the modern awareness that all identity established across difference and gives criticism for a necessity of a new politics of difference to go along with this new sense of self. Racial discrimination is an aspect that has predominantly been cordoned by Anzaldua; it has led to marginalizing of some women while at the same time it has led to adding value to others. This has therefore led to what Cherrie Moraga refers to as “theory of flesh” (Gloria 250).
This personified theory sprouts from the material reality of double oppressions and in turn enhances those concepts of materiality. The personified subjects that are produced from the racial discrimination of women create an avenue for a better understanding of racial discrimination according to gender. In this array, Hall proposes an idea of having a political difference. There is a need to have a politics of difference that will allow all people to be treated equally without isolation basing on the societal status, culture or language. Such a concept will therefore pave way for political environment that will constitute and fight for justice for all genders regardless of the culture.
The politics ought to be articulated in such a way that, it should create connections between individuals that ought to give rise to a sense of identity in such a manner that everyone will be at a liberty to freedom of speech. In essence the theoretical framework provided by Anzaldua Borderlands tries to set up a border identity for the people of Chicano. Anzaldua, who confesses to be a Chicano Lesbian and a working class lady laments that she never at any time enjoyed any privileges in the categories of race, culture, gender, class or sexuality (Gloria 255).
He explicitly expresses her grief by saying that she belongs nowhere in the society due to her aspect of dual identity. This aspect makes her feel displaced and leaves her homeless and therefore opts to feel this space through writing. Mestiza consciousness or the boarder consciousness does not happen out of nothing but is created and then presented as a new myth, or a new culture or practice. Through the mythos created, reality is then perceived and thus Mestiza creates a new consciousness. In Anzaldua Borderland, the new consciousness created is via writing: a project that Anzaldua undertook for self –formation in Chicano. Through the writings that Anzaldua did, she stressed on consciousness of difference mostly focusing on her multiple sexes. In Chicano, borderland is characterized by such contradictory movements: the agony and strength of living in borderland. In her first essay, Anzaldua addresses Chicano boarder as existing between the United States and Mexico.
The boarder has been established as being the original homeland of the Indians besides being Mexican once and it in this note that the Mestizaje has been termed in racial terms. After having a good set up about the boarder and racial and cultural Mestizaje as the “homeland”, Anzaldua exemplifies the concept of home in his second essay. Her nature as discussed easier in the discussion prohibits her from accepting her matrimonial home and is therefore goes out to find a new home where she will be accepted (Norma 145).
According to her case, “being home” depends on the rate of discrimination of women and particularly the dark skinned Indian. This is the reason that herself she decides to hold back and therefore remain the safe boundaries of “home”. The two segments, “How to Tame a Wild Tongue” and “Tlilli Tlapalli: the Path of the Red and Black Ink”, are concerned with language and writing techniques that Anzaldua uses in the production of Mestiza consciousness. In “How to tame a wild Tongue” in this she conceptualizes on the reasons she choose not to remain mum (the wild tongue cannot be tamed, only cut out), and also the reason as to why her language is considered inappropriate by the dominants. Anzaldua is being considered unsuitable by the dominants and she narrates about the linguistic terrorism that is being faced by the Chicanos whose languages is widely used around Mexico and United States (Anzaldúa, 269)
Alarcon, Norma. "The Theoretical Subject(s) of This Bridge Called My Back and Anglo-
American Feminism." Anzaldúa. Making Face. 356-69.
Anzaldúa, Gloria. Borderlands/ La Frontera: The New Mestiza. San Francisco:
Spinsters/ Aunt Lute, 1987.
Lucha Corpi. Crimson moon: a Brown Angel mystery, Chicago: Arte Publico Press, 2004.