De jure segregation is an illegal isolation of schools based on the fact that the communities in which they are situated have been detached from the rest of the society. It also results from political boundaries that separate mixed communities. On the other hand, De facto segregation is an isolation of schools resulting from the settlement patterns. De facto segregation is currently widespread in the United States.
Racial integration can be encouraged by levels of income. Whites and blacks who earn the same income would belong to the same social class thus find it comfortable to stay together. However, this can only apply in neighborhoods in which residents strongly believe that they have gotten beyond race. Both the backs and the whites must overcome the forces of racism and embrace togetherness. Similarly, renters and individuals without families are more likely live together irrespective of their races. Besides, racial mixing is also more secure and stable in areas where there seems to be no further increase in black population hence no white flights.
Some neighborhoods are isolated on demographic reasons. Some of the Americans, especially the whites, like staying in small groups rather than in areas with high concentration of people. It is discussed that once blacks start gaining number in residences with mixed races, the whites find it uncomfortable and quit such places. This eventually makes such residences isolated chiefly for the blacks. Secondly, there is a very strong fear that has been developed by both the black and white American citizens. The white Americans are afraid of being overtaken by the black population wise. As the blacks quickly gain population in an area, the whites as the minority group fear being dominated by the blacks as the majority. This sends them away as soon as they sense danger. The same fear is evident in the blacks and incase of such circumstance, they also migrate from such places.
Brown’s decision on school segregation fueled more isolation and diversity in the American schools. The Supreme Court ruled out the consideration of racial diversity in school assignments despite the fact that segregation still exists in suburb residential areas based on ethnicity.
Resegregation is supported by the fact that today less that 30 percent of black students in the South attend schools in the majority-whites schools unlike in the 1990s when more than 40 percent did. Furthermore, Americans are still privileged to choose home ownership in places where all the residents look alike.
Historically, segregation in the United States schools is about forty years old. From 1970s many schools were already isolated along racial and settlement lines. In fact, attempts to curb segregation were hampered by the Supreme Court ruling. The establishment of the Charter schools furthered school segregation as they are always located in highly segregated areas. Lack of transportation also limited access to such schools to those who live close to the schools. Furthermore, the United States settlement patterns encouraged school choice leading to more segregation.
Modern civil rights movements have to gain a lot of hope from the desegregation of United States public schools. The fact that desegregation was taking place in the US public schools was a very big blow to the pessimists who believed that segregation would dominate forever. The importance of this desegregation is that it gives the modern civil movements more courage that United States can totally stump out segregation.
Ellen, Ingrid Gould. "Welcome Neighbors." Bookings Review (1997): 314-320.
Lockette, Tim. "Unmaking Brown." Teaching Tolerance (2010): 309-314.