Article 2 Summary: Duncan, J. W. 2011. Everything is Obvious, Once You Know You Know the Answer: How Common Sense Fails Us. New York: Crown Business. Retrieved on September 09, 2011 from http://hbswk.hbs.edu/item/6785.html
It is imperative for leaders to exercise common sense especially in modern day leadership which requires decisions to be made fast.
Modern day decisions making is rapid and often done without much research or application of any theories and the expectation is to have below average risk exposure.
The decision making can be improved through wisdom and experience, failure or absence of these two factors the leader ought to exercise more caution.
This article traces the importance of decision making in leadership. It is imperative to ensure that leaders utilise common sense. Webster dictionary defines common sense as the sound and prudent judgement and this is based on simple perception of the facts or situation. Common sense is important in leadership and this article contributes significantly to the many aspects that a good leader needs to exercise in order to make effective decisions (Watt, 2011).
The application of common sense advocated by the article is essential in enabling leaders to be flexible and be able to adapt to rapidly changing conditions that is crucial to the successful running of a business organisation (Harris, 1998).
Article 2: Nobel, C. (2011), Looking in the Mirror: Questions Every Leader Must Ask. Retrieved on September, 10 2011 from http://hbswk.hbs.edu/item/6706.html
Important to understand that in most leadership positions leaders often fail and the knowledge on how leaders fail would help individuals manage change as they will not be impended by not asking questions.
The article postulates that asking questions is often confused with lack of knowledge which is not appropriate, thus it is imperative for leaders to look for answers as it would ensure sound and prudent judgement. Thus the framework for asking questions outlined in this article emphasises that asking questions and looking for answers is not lack of knowledge but the application of the knowledge.
Hence the knowledge, experience and wisdom of a reader is important but in the globalised world there is need to make rapid decisions thus requiring a leader to make effective decisions often based not on experience but through asking questions and looking for answers (Tobias & L., 2011).
This article contributes to the role of a leader and the crucial role effective decision making plays in an organisation. A good leader needs to ask questions and this will lead to effective decisions (Max, and Ann, 2011).
Article 3: Heskett, J. (2011), How Ethical Can We Be? Retrieved on September 10, 2011 from http://hbswk.hbs.edu/item/6711.html
In the definition of what is right the author articulates the fact that what is right and therefore decision making is important and should be placed in its broader context.
Thus it is imperative to not only make ethical decisions and not rely only on what is right but also other aspects of decision making, this would avoid making bad decision. This would amount to short- sighted thinking and would be detrimental of the leader.
In leadership decision making, ethical decisions has a role but must be supported by other systems, these are planning, knowledge and research. Thus it is through planning, research and knowledge that leaders can be able to make appropriate decisions when confronted by day to day management problems that require rapid decisions making.
The ability to combine all the necessary ingredients of good decision making, then it is possible to be a great leader known for being a great decision maker.
The context, upon which the author has placed ethical decisions, has a greater significance in modern day leadership roles of managers.
This article is significant and contributes to the need of ethical leaders and the role of ethics in decision making without which the leaders would not be effective (Daft, (2008).
The article contributes to the leadership topic as it equips managers with necessary leadership skills to handle not only emerging issues but also day to day roles (Kaplan, Norton, and Barrows 2008), thus turning managers into leaders who can make effective decisions even with limited information and time (Snowden, and Boone, 2007).
Daft R. L., (2008). New era of management. (2nd Ed). Mason. U.S.: Thomson South-Western.
Harris, R. 1998 “Introduction to decision making”, [Web], Virtual Salt, Retrieved on September 8, 2011 from http://www.virtualsalt.com/crebook5.htm
Heskett, J. (2011), How Ethical Can We Be? Retrieved on September 10, 2011 from http://hbswk.hbs.edu/item/6711.html
Kaplan R.S., Norton D.P., & Barrows E.A. (2008) Developing the strategy: vision value gaps and analysis. The Harvard business school publishing Corporation.
Max, H. B. & Ann E. T. (2011), Blind Spots: Why We Fail to Do About It. Princeton, N. J.: Princeton University Press.
Nobel, C. (2011), Looking in the Mirror: Questions Every Leader Must Ask. Retrieved on September, 10 2011 from http://hbswk.hbs.edu/item/6706.html
Snowden, D. J. & Boone, M. E. 2007. A Leader’s Framework for Decision Making. Harvard Business Review, 85, 68-76
Tobias J. M. & L. J. W. (2011) Score casting: The Hidden Influences behind How Sports Are Played and Games Won. New York, N.Y.: Crown Publishing Group.
Watt, J. D. 2011. Everything is Obvious, Once You Know You Know the Answer: How Common Sense Fails Us. New York: Crown Business.