Also known as behaviorism, states that learning among human beings is based upon the idea that all behaviors are based upon the conditions availed. This means that if one is conditioned to know that something is bad he/she will avoid it if he/she is conditioned that something is good his/her behavior will reflect that (Schmalleger, 222). This theory which was postulated by the likes of John Watson and B.F Skinner can be used in criminology to identify why criminals act in a certain way. With this theory, one can conclude that one environment affects the choice of being a criminal.
The theory states that for one to do something negative, he or she is not in full control of oneself. In matters of crime, it can be said that the root cause of a person to commit crime is the person being in a position not to control the self. It was postulated in the in the year 1940 and it’s still applicable till now. The main concepts in this theory include self-control, criminal opportunity and general theory. For most criminals, it can be said that it is not their will but their lack of self-control over the matter.
For this theory, the behavior of human beings is affected by the people they look forward to, their models. Human beings tend to copy the people they see to be their role models as they see them as next to perfect. The theory that was postulated in the 1950s by the likes of Gabriel Tarde and Albert Bandura is used in criminology to know why certain people decided to venture into the specific crimes they are associated. This means that the choice of some people to venture into any sort of criminal activities may be attributed to their role models in the environment they leave.
Also known as Forensic Psychiatry is an approach that involves a set of motives and drives within the personality of a person that affects their behavior (Schmalleger, 222). As people are different, people may have different motives and things that affect their intent to commit crime. This means that for one to commit a crime there must be an intent that has driven the person to that level. Certain people who do it for fun may be referred to as psychopath or sociopath. The theory was postulated around 1930s and is still applicable to date.
This theory was postulated by Sigmund Freud in the 1920s and is applicable to date. The theory emphasizes on the role of personality in how one behaves. To Sigmund, personality affects human behavior greatly, therefore, deviant behaviors such as committing crime are as a result of dysfunctional personalities. Therefore, criminals are known to have dysfunctional personalities according to this theory. Sigmund concluded that criminals possess dysfunctional personalities including schizophrenia, psychosis among others.
The theory was formulated around 1940s by the likes of J. Dollard, Richard Walters and Albert Bandura. The theory states that frustration is the root cause of crime and natural consequence of living. The theory states that the criminal behavior can result in stress reduction when used as a form of adaption. With these, there are people who tend to release their frustrations through the commitment of crime according to Dollard and Bandura.
Schmalleger, F. psychological and psychiatric foundations of criminal behavior. 11th ed. Pearson, 2011. Print.