Coevolution refers to the process through which two or more diverse species jointly or reciprocally affects each other’s evolution as well as development. It can also be defined as the change in the genetic composition of species in a reaction to the genetic modification in another species. The idea of coevolution is mainly considered as the reciprocal evolutionary change or modification of the interacting species. For instance, species C evolves, which results species D to evolve, which effects species C to evolve, then causes species D to evolve and the process repeats itself in that sequence. Many commentators usually argue that coevolution is likely to take place especially when different species share the same ecological interactions, as well as characteristics with one another. Some of the vital ecological relationships that must be present for the coevolution process may include a host, prey, parasite or predator, competitive species, which in most cases resist or struggle to outdo or dominate each other. Another ecological relationship includes mutualistic species, which imply that the species involved always benefit from the interaction (Pollan 30).
It is evident that plants and insects normally represent the classic process of the coevolution. This coevolution process is mainly considered to be often, but never always mutualistic. It occurs that a lot of plants and the pollinators are always so reliant on each other, as well as the relationships, is usually exclusive in which many scientists especially biologists portray an excellent reason to feel the match between the two parties as an appropriate coevolutionary procedure. Additionally, the process usually takes place when such organisms are ecologically intimate and thus influence each other’s evolution procedure.
Artificial selection usually refers to the process through which farmers and other breeders causes a major change in their plants or animals by using species with extinct characteristics. These farmers and breeder normally allow plants and animals which have unique features reproduce, hence eliminating those species with weak and undesirable features. Here, the farmer or breeder mainly selects which animals or plants should reproduce using various methods that enable them to determine the product of such initiative. In those organisms that reproduce through sexual means, the breeder can select the most suitable organisms. For instance, the farmer may consider two plants that are tall and decides to breed them together with the motive of acquiring unique species. It is obvious that in such a case, the mechanism of such heredity usually dictates the reproduction of the next generation, which mainly consists of traits from both the previous plants. If the artificial selection method is practiced on these plants, in the future there will betaller plant from the same breeds. Many researchers argue that an artificial selection produces effective and desirable results than natural selection since the random forces of nature always determine which organisms survive as well as reproducing. In artificial selection, the outcome is desirable and continues to advance over time in order to make some traits common. There are notable examples of a successful artificial selection procedure such as cabbage, cauliflower, Brussels, broccoli, kale and sprouts. Example of artificial selection in animals is usually done on animals such as racehorses as well as those animals that provide the meat people consume.
Genetically modified organism (GMO) refers to the organism that has an altered genetic material using genetic engineering processes or techniques. These organisms that are always genetically modified include those micro-organisms creatures such as the bacteria, yeast, fish, mammals, plants and even insects. Therefore, it is evident that GMO’s are usually the main source of all the genetically modified foods. The process is mainly used in producing other vital goods other than foodstuffs. Genetic modification is mainly defined as the use of the modern biotechnology methods in order to change the genes of any organism liable for the process such as various plants and animals. All animals and plants are normally made of approximately a billion tiny cells. Inside these tiny cells are the nucleus which contains DNA. It is clear that DNA is passed from generation to another in order to keep the organism functioning effectively. Genetic modification is, therefore, the manipulation of genetic material or genetic engineering in order to come up with an effective plant, animal or even organism. For instance, in the U.S. genetic modified maize are used in feeding horses. The method is usually relied on since it is considered to be more effective than the traditional breeding methods; hence it provides the required opportunities for the survival of certain breeds to endure specific climates, as well as conditions.
In lay man’s language, monoculture is defined as the cultivation of just a single crop or organism depending on certain factors. The practice mainly involves the growth of a single crop or plant species in a wider area as well as for a longer period of time consecutively. However, the method is termed as ineffective since it can lead to the spread of various diseases and pests at a faster rate especially when the crop is very susceptible to the pathogens. The process usually goes year after year and thus termed as dangerous farming practice. The method is widely embraced and even used by modern agricultural industry since the method assures the firm of a large harvest with minimal labor. The method has various strengths as well as weaknesses. Some of the strengths include the firm is able to produce massive harvest using minimal labor force. The method is very economical since it assures the company of enjoying many profits since it minimizes the costs of production to maximize the profits. Some of the weaknesses of this method may include the fact that the crops are prone to various diseases and pests. Additionally, the method tends to waste a lot of the soil nutrients, water and even energy, which are essentials for the growth of the crop. The usage of land is poor since large tracks of land are mainly used to grow one type of crop.
It is evident that Michael Pollan’s idea of the botany desire is fully taking a new perspective. People usually never recognize plants even though they have been laboring on them as well as utilizing human beings for their own goals and objectives. Interestingly, there are only four plants that have managed to walk down the road to such accomplishments by simply fulfilling human ambitions (Pollan, 130). Tulip has managed to satisfy human longing for a specific type of attraction and thus the idea has gotten into people’s minds distributing it across the world. Marijuana usually satisfies human ambitions in that it changes the awareness they have gotten, hence risking their lives and even freedom with the aim of producing more of the product. The potato has managed to satisfy human desire to mastery and control over the surroundings, thereby, making individuals nourish themselves effectively. The apple satisfies humans through providing some sweetness that quench their appetite. This implies that these four plants are great champions in such a game of domestication.
Pollan, Michael. The Botany of Desire: A Plant's-Eye View of the World. New York: Random House, 2001. Print.