Second Treatise of Government
1. According to Locke, civil society and property have a close relationship because in as much as people exercise their rights they are supposed to protect their property, which entails the preservation of one’s estate, liberty, and even their life. Consequently, the civil society is responsible for punishing those who destroy property in line with the penalties imposed by law.
2. The power to come up with laws arises when a group of natural people comes together as one body to either form parliament or the senate. This body of persons forms a government, which is automatically vested with the power to enact laws.
3. Locke defines a civil society as a group of persons who relinquish the powers accorded to them by the natural laws to the members of the public.
4. Absolute monarchy is illegitimate given that a leader in this event is in possession of both executive and legislative powers. As such, the subjects cannot find redress and fair judgment because the laws do not serve the public good making it difficult to appeal to such a government whenever there is a controversy.
The English Bill of Rights
1. Monarchs were subjected to the protestant religions and thus they were expected to lead and abide by the expectations of the protestant faith so that the rights of protestants would not be violated like was the case during the reign of King James.
2. The freedom of speech was to be exercised in parliament in the course of holding their proceedings and debates. This freedom empowered parliamentarians, as they would no longer be questioned in courts or whenever they were outside parliament with regards to the issues they raised during their debates.
3. The Bill of Rights stipulated that the King’s role would be to respect the powers of parliament before suspending a law as well as to seek their consent before amending any law. As such, the King could not break or make laws as he pleased, as he had to first go through parliament.
4. It was believed than James had abdicated the throne because his act of fleeing from England out of fear of being beaten in the war against Prince William. Therefore, the throne remained vacant after James’ departure. Different people implied various things concerning his departure and thus took the initiative to establish the Bill of Rights so that they could all agree on the right way for the state to work.
1. Saint Simon greatly admired Louis’ courage, figure, grace, his wonderful tone of voice, beauty and brilliance hence making him stand out from any other person.
2. Saint Simon attributed the success of Louis XIV much early in life to the skillful ministers he had together with clever clergymen and the best generals all of which he had inherited after the death of Louis III.
3. A courtier was required to be someone who was always present during all the court meetings and one who showed ignorance and filled Louis XIV with praise for everything he deed including the progress they had made in their personal lives.
4. Louis was a failure because he spent so much of his time dealing with petty wrongs committed by those around him. Furthermore, instead of appointing ministers who were knowledgeable, he opted for those who were ignorant because he wanted to have anyone he considered to be superior to him in any aspect closer to him.
5. The absolutist state operated in such a manner that they were only keen to impress Louis IV and thereby they engaged in activities and said things that were mainly aimed at impressing Louis IV.