The development in children is rooted in the developmental theories. Over the years, scientists and more importantly psychologists have developed several theories to explain the discoveries and observation in child development
A child develops trust in another person when it has his or her needs met by the initial caregiver. This creates a nurturing and consistent relation. In a secure relationship, the child may create attachments. R develops a relationship of trust with her teacher, and it is seen when she cannot play with the rest of her class. Also, she spends most of her time with the teacher rather than her mates. Children should be allowed once in a while to soothing themselves with the particular behaviors that work for them. R can be seen to playing with her doll alone. It is critical that they should not be interfered since it is a self-soothing behavior. John Bowlby's theory of attachment is viewed here as the relationship between R, and the caregiver influences the social relationships with other people (Keenan & Evans, 2009).
According to Erik Erikson’s theory, children who cannot develop secure connections, withdraw, become depressed and apathetic, or in some few cases, give up and do not survive. However, R is different and acts out to seek the desperately needed sensation in aggressive and sometimes dangerous ways. This is seen where are lost her shoes. Therefore, she goes to the teacher, who is the primary caregiver. Though many children have developed healthy attachments, they still occasionally experience separation anxiety, stranger anxiety, or fear being apart from their caregiver or the person that they are attached to. R can be helped by coping with them by responding softly, ritualizing a departure of parents, and always maintaining a predictable schedule of her. Also, offering transitional items to the as well as allowing R to become familiar with her friends will also help her in her socio-emotional development.
This development begins when the child collects and processes sensation from the seven senses. The experiences that lead to this development of sensory motor abilities allows R to develop the required motor abilities, the foundations to day-to-day behaviors and skills and later in life, cognitive development. R is observed to effectively communicate with her peers as well as the teacher. Lev Vygotsky’s proved here because learn actively through hands-on experiences like playing with a doll. Children learn faster and efficiently when new information is scuffled on them.
Furthermore, according to Alfred Bandura’s theory, R developed the necessary sensory motor abilities and formed a secure attachment that was needed to feel comfortable and safe with herself, therefore, she is able to learn and know what she wants and do not want (Keenan & Evans, 2009). Trying to force the learning into a child is inane; you could be damaging the child instead. When R is playing with her doll, she is acquiring knowledge. If a child has positive interactions and experiences that effectively prepare them for abstract cognitive concepts and thoughts, and the opportunities for the gross motor and movement activities, nutrition, rest, and many of them will learn to solve problems and think critically.
Children are always curious and want to explore their world. According to Arnold Gesell's theory, that is why babies change their facial expression and move their bodies towards an object that seem interesting to them. They not only exercise skills that help them move their body towards what is attractive to them, but they also move those interesting things. The intensity of children to master movement, balance and motor- skills increases with their growth. Children’s physical growth begins with their muscles strengthening and their coordination progressively develops.
The experiences a child undergo in their early years is very crucial as it affects the way their brain will be functioning about its response to stress and their ability to be trustworthy (Reubins M & Reubins S., 2014). Moreover, it is during this stage that their brain is undergoing a spectacular growth, setting the stage for emotional and social development. Children begin to understand their feelings and that of others as they way of thinking becomes complex and their language blossoms. The ability of a child to react and interact with their social surrounding over time is what emotional development is all about.
• Grant their children their freedom to utilize large muscles in undertakings such as climbing, running and swinging at the playground.
• Always ensure their children sleep sufficiently and acquire enough nutrition to charge their development activities.
• Regularly take their kids to a specialist (pediatrician) for examination, so that their hearing abilities and vision are always intact.
Keenan, T., & Evans, S. (2009). An introduction to child development. Los Angeles: SAGE.
Reubins, B. M., & In Reubins, M. S. (2014). Pioneers of child psychoanalysis: Influential theories and practices in healthy child development.