The number of individuals in America who are exposed to traumatic has been growing in the recent past because of the effects that it causes. The traumatic situations have transformed into post traumatic stress disorder where the body becomes to sensitive to anything that can provoke pain. PTSD can be classified into various categories depending of the initial causes the trauma. Studies have shown that different types of trauma cause different effects to the society, individual and their families. The purpose of this study will be to provide a literature review on the link between family violence and combat post traumatic stress disorder. Combat PTSD affects particularly most war veterans because of the combat zone experiences while they were at war. This disorder is extremely exhibited by individuals who took part in Vietnam or Iraq war. These studies will obviously be possible through the identification of independent variable, which is PTSD, and independent variable, which is family violence, depression or anger. A successful study will be realized upon clear identification of the variables.
A number of studies have been carried out in order to the concept of combat PTSD and the social problems associated with it. A study carried out by Gewirtz et al (2010) titled “Pos-traumatic Stress symptoms among National Guard soldiers deployed to Iraq: Associations with Parenting Behaviors and Couple adjustment”, sought to find out on the effects of stress to a family. The conceptual framework of the study sought to examine in detail the associations among combat-related-PTSD symptoms, parenting behaviors, and a couple of adjustments among soldiers who had returned from the Iraq war (Gewirtz et al 599). This framework proved to be useful in the understanding of the impact of traumatic events in the live of an individual. The authors provide us with an indication from the research that depression arising form the trauma significantly impairs marital adjustments and parenting practices.
The researchers went further to explain in detail the impact of PTSD on couple relationships and their families. It can be identified from the article that there is a significant negative correlation of the disorder on couples. At most instances, the soldiers are always withdrawn and they do not want to be disturbed. The victim may at most instances interpret a sign of concern from their companion as a disturbance directed to them. Most of them are also withdrawn and cannot take control of their actions. This result in their uncontrolled behavior, which at most instance is violence. The study however shows that soldiers who had encountered low-combat situations in their stay in Iraq had limited tendencies of engaging of marital violence. Additionally, the effect of the combat PTSD resulted in poor parent-child problems solving skills and poor communication approaches. Occurrences of these situations in a family setting are likely to create a certain degree of conflict (Gewirtz et al 604).
Another article by Mary Tramontin sought to present the current trends in combat-related PTSD in terms of diagnosis and assessment. According to the author, it is indispensable for all legal systems to understand the situations that may drive an individual to be violent. The author also appreciates the fact that the American community will be influenced considerably by the soldiers who are coming back from the war (Tramontin 24). Most soldiers in combat situations undergo a series of stressful events, which may make it hard for them to adapt back to the initial normal way of life. The trauma suffered in the war may be reignited especially if the society tends to be hostile to them. This is the reason provided by the author as to why most soldiers engage in marital violence as a way of coping up with the trauma. Just as the author puts it, “To qualify as a trauma survivor, one should respond with fright to learning about misfortunes of others, including strangers”.
In addition, the author also provides some of the assessment procedures that have to be followed when a traumatized individual is to be assisted. The steps that may be followed for proper assistance to be achieved include the proper consideration of a traumatic event, looking for symptoms and linking the two. Fro the diagnosis, it can be clearly identified that individuals who are distressed have a higher tendency of engaging in a fist-fight to whoever comes their way. Further to this, the author presents to us the fact that PTSD is a treatable disorder and has to be addressed by practitioners with exceptional urgency. The author finishes his article by providing the best method to treat the disorder (Tramontin 27). Cognitive behavioral therapy is the first line of treatment of PTSD and it can be useful in eliminating any chances of occurrence of marital violence.
Christopher et al (20099) on their part carried out a study to review some of the traumatic events that may drive an individual with PTSD to engage in violence. In this context, youths maltreated within a family setting are see3n to suffer a lot due to the conflict that may occur. Consequently, children are biologically and psychologically affected by the conflict that arises when one member of the family has the PTSD. This is because the conflict at most times creates some sort of misunderstanding rendering the family dysfunctional (Kearney 49) Combat PTSD is presented by the authors that it occurs when an individual is exposed to a stressor that may act as a threat to the individual in relation to physical integrity and other social harms. The authors also provide treatment for PTSD and they include interventions like cognitive behavior, hypnotherapy, art, and play. Additionally, more specific approaches to eradicate the disorder include psycho-education, interpersonal sills development, coping skills, and stress inoculation training. When this is done, the chances of marital conflict occurring are significantly reduced (Kearney 53).
An article by Hobfoll et al provides some of the importance interventions that can be used to tackle post traumatic stress disorder. This they are able to prove the validity of the methods by providing some the empirical evidence, which shows how effective the methods are in the alleviation of marital violence. Some of the methods that have proved to be helpful as presented in the article include the cultivation of sense of safety for the individual, promoting calming, promoting the sense of self and collective efficacy, and promoting hope and connectedness. When these methods are applied, there are higher chances that the occurrence of marital conflict can be significantly minimized. Interventions like cognitive-behavior therapy have to be instituted altogether (Hobfoll et al 287).
In their research carried out by Scott et al, (2010), they have provided the link between symptoms and traumatic experiences associated with a traumatic disorder. The shocking reality is that, a husband who is traumatized may and suffers for from PTSD may engage in a fist-fight with the marriage partners (Shelby and Julia 3). This may consequently make them suffer form the same disorder. Currently, it is necessary to appreciate the fact that it is not a wish of the individual to suffer from the disorder. Additionally, most individuals suffering from this disorder have little that they can do to control their behavior like being violent. In this article, on is able to learn that intimate partner violence has a negative effect in the mental health of the individuals in question. It is therefore, necessary for further research to be carried out in order to ensure that adequate remedies are consolidated toward the minimization of the negative effects (Shelby and Julia 5).
While carrying out their research, Claudia Catani (2008), sought to establish the link and the effects of family war that occurs inmost cases because of on partner suffering from combat-related PTSD. Preliminary results indicate that there is poor understanding of mental health disasters and furthers researches has to be carried out in order to develop appropriate remedies. There is a clear indication that children too ca suffer from the effects PTSD. Parents who may have experienced a particular trauma tic event in their lives may begin to show some weird behaviors that may prove to be unbecoming to the other partner and even to the children. This plays an extremely prominent in violence causation within the family setting. Some random findings have been published by several organizations and agencies working in refugee camps. These findings suggest that war violence translates into family violence as evidenced by high levels of spousal beatings in refugee and resettlement communities (Catani 4).
Benedek and Wyn in their book “Clinical Manual for Management of PTSD” inform us that war veterans suffering for the disorder have potentially elevated levels of aggression, violence and social impairness. The impairness is not discriminative because such individuals could be able to avoid being violent to their spouses. Such individuals are also hostile and have a higher tendency of destroying any form of property that may appear to be a disruption to their lives. Some may even resort to solitude, and whenever they are disturbed in a particular manner; they tend to show a high level of violence (David and Gary 207). Consequently, their studies indicate that veterans are the most predisposed individuals who can easily engage in aggressive behaviors because of PTSD. Childhood traumas, level of combat exposure, and presence of severity symptoms play a hugely pivotal role in the way various individuals may engage in family conflict and violence.
It is conclusive to say that PTSD is a rampant disorder in the American society and is highly experienced by the veterans of Iraq and Vietnam War. Individuals in most cases show a high degree of withdrawal symptoms, aggressiveness, and hostility. This plays a significant role in determining the extent of family violence and the consequential effects. Similarly, the individuals suffering from the disorder have poor coping skills and have a high degree of antisocial tendencies. This also plays some role in the occurrence of violence.
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