1.Define prosocial behavior
The activity of helping or being of benefit to someone without having a particular goal to achieve rather than just to help. This view mostly on the consequences of such actions.
The act of doing things just to help but not under the obligation to do so. It focuses more on the desire to just help I.e. more of the actions of helping than the consequences of the acations.
This is the tendency to always show the altrusic activities
2. .Prosocial behavior as inborn
Is believed that prosocial behavior can be transmitted in genes so that the helping group is maintained in generations.
3. Norms of prosocialbehaviour
Reprocrity which requires that you help the people who have helped you before and you don’t harm them.
Social responsibility involves people helping each other because it is expected that they help each other in society regardless of whether the helped would reciprocate.
Equity is where by fairness is employed in helping others –as they deserve
4. Cognitive development. Approach and social-learning approach.
Cognitive development approach involves the experience of the child in the environment leading to that end up shaping the attitudes and values of them.
Social learning approach involves the modeling the behavior, attitudes and values of the child by way of parental upbringing.
5. Mood and prosocialbehaviour
Good mood promote prosocialbehaviour in that positive feeling makes people more charitable while bad moods such as sadness would impede desires to help others.
6. Empathy and prosocialbehaviour
It is normal human feeling to respond to other people’s suffering by placing oneself in their state. This promotes prosocialbehaviour among people.
7. Culture and prosocial behavior
Prosocialbehaviour is more associated in culture require it. In communities or societies with large family systems the children acquire this behavior.
8. Gender and prosocialbehaviour
Females show a prolonged behavior while men show short term. Generally men show more prosocial behavior than females.
9.Rural-urban differences in prosocial behavior
People in small towns tend to help each other more than those in large populated cities that generally care for their lives and survival.
10. Bystander effect and its cause
Refers to the effect of reduced tendency of people to help in situations where other people are also around. Responsibility seems to diffuse to other people around.
Diffusion of responsibility among those in the group makes many think that they are not responsible in case of distress.
The one in distress is seen by some of the witnesses as being similar to them and so he/she should struggle.
Every on looker is waiting for the others to act first leading to no one acting at all in helping the one in distress
11. Factors that distinguish helpers from non helpers
Helpers willing to give out while non-helpers not willing to give out, helpers are not selective. They help irrespective of where one comes from unlike non helpers.
12. Factors affecting ones willingness to help
Gender issues, ethnic differences, attitude and social behavior of an individual.
13. Compare the Latane-Darley intervention model with the pillavin model
Latane-Darley is a five staged model that explains the bystander behavior of an individual while Pillavin model explains how various situational factors can influence helping behavior of an individual. He ascertain this through carrying out various experiments.
14. how characteristics of the person in need affect helping
His facial and body expression prompts an individual to help him.
15. Roles of gratitude and forgiveness
Forgiveness and gratitude are positive psychological characteristics which are connected to well-being of the individuals.
16. Discuss the stuff of heroism
Asserts that some individuals’ feels but never reasons and therefore such individuals always believe that they are on the right and hence great people.
1.CONFLICT AND AGGRESSION AND COMPETITION
Conflict is a disagreement in which parties involved perceive threat to their needs concerns and even interests.
Aggression refers to a given group of behaviors that can lead to psychological or even physical harm to someone or others or even to the surrounding environment
Competition relies in the use of coercive power to put ones needs above others leading to rivalry in the bid to attain supremacy in the subject matter.
2 .TYPES OF CONFLICTS
Person vs. self
Person vs. person
Person vs. society
Person vs. nature
Person vs. supernatural
Person vs. technology
3.SOCIAL EXCHANGE THEORY
This theory says that social relationships and behaviors are as a result of exchange process where individuals maximize benefits and minimize costs.
4. describe game theory
A mathematical branch that deals with the analysis of competitive situations where the outcome of the partcicipants choice is dependent.
5. ZERO SUM GAMES AND NON ZERO SUM GAMES
Zero sum games refer to games in which the winner gains a positive point and the loser equal negative point summing to zero.
Non zero games the there is a possibility multiple winners in one game
Involved in the analysis of none zero game where the two players have to choose between two moves either to cooperate or to defect.
7. 2 FORMS OF COLLECTIVE DILEMA
8 .GROUP SIZE AND COOPERATION
Large groups are not very easy to handle and control therefore may impede cooperation as some members may be barred from participating. Medium sized groups are ideal for maximum cooperation.
Signing of agreements ensures both parties loyalty to it hence cooperation.
Involvement of every member of the group in governance and administration of the group gives the members morale of cooperating with others.
10. summarize two characteristics of the dangerous game
Has the following characters Sanger Rainsford and whitney
11. outline what makes threats credible
A threat that one’s opponent has good grounds for believing that it would be carried out.
12. Most effective strategy for cooperation
Cooperative learning, comprehension monitoring story structure, question answering e.t.c.
13. role of predisposition variables
Predisposition is the tendency to suffer from a particular condition or to hold a particular attitude. Predisposition variables therefore make individual to act in certain or a particular way.
14. Role of third party intervention
Third party role is that of a mediator. He/she helps to bring the two or more conflicting sides together.
15. compare mediation to arbitration as well as hybrid process
In arbitration, the arbitrator controls the outcome while in mediation, the parties control the outcomes. In the hybrid process both the characteristics of arbitration and mediation are all applied inclusively.
16. robber’s cave experiment
An experiment in intergroup that investigated the intergroup dynamics through assessing two groups of eleven year old boys who had been sent to remote summer camp.
17. basic process of GRIT approach
Asserts that the disputant can initiate de-escalation through making a small unilateral concession to the other side while at the same time communicating desire or even an expectation that the gesture shall be matched with an equal response from the opponent.
18. Compare the deterrent schema with the conflict spiral schema.
Deterrent schema stops an individual from attaining a particular goal in the best way or as fast as he/she could it be. On the other hand, conflict spiral schema engages one into conflict with other s.
AGGRESSION AND VIOLENCE
Refers to a range of behaviors that may lead to psychological and physical harm to oneself, others and even the surrounding environment.
- Contrast instrumental and hostile aggression
Hostile aggression done with intention to inflict harm to another person while instrumental aggression done in order to attain particular goal.
- Contrast biological and social explanations of aggression
Biological approach to aggression attached to genetic makeup of an individual while the social approach asserts that aggression can be amplified by the environmental cues.
Refers to a type of emotional release that leads to psychoanalytic therapy
- FRUSTRATION-AGGRESSION HYPOTHESIS
States that frustration leads to aggression
Environmental cues, pain, heat and crowding.
- Link between punishment and aggression
Both can lead to the infliction of pain to an individual. Therefore punishment can contribute to aggression.
- Link between bullies and aggression.
Bulling increases aggression because it can lead to either psychological or physical harm to an individual.
- Consequences of family violence
Causes aggression among individuals in the family, can lead to conflict between family members, can lead to physical damages and death.
- Individual characteristics linked to aggression.
Personality characteristics, attitudes, drug use, bad parental nurture and peer pressure.
- Cultural influences on aggression.
Nurture where boys given preferences to ladies, cultural norms.
- Basic effects of media violence on aggressive behavior.
It increases aggressive behavior on an individual.
- Indirect effect of media violence
Can make an individual to become violent. Nurtures violent behavior in an individual.
- Link between aggression and gender
Research shows that boys are more aggressive than ladies because boys use commanding voice while ladies use soft voice or requests.
- Excitation transfer theory
Asserts that excitation from one stimulus is likely to stimulate excitatory response from another stimulus.
Are printed or display of images containing sexual organs or activity. Pornography increases aggression in an individual.
- Prospects of controlling aggression.
Exercise, therapy and learning how to control anger and emotions.
Refers to making a decision before coming to the real facts relevant to the case
COGNITIVE COMPONENT OF PREJUDICE
This component refers and involves the stereotypes of a society i.e. intergroupings and social learning may lead to this.
C.3ASPECTS OF STEREOTYPES
D. ILLUSORY CORRELATIONS HELP MAINTAIN STEREOTYPES
Joint occurrence of distinctive behaviors or groups of people is overestimated leading to maintenance of stereotypes.
E. STEREOTYPE ACTIVATION
This is sometimes achieved through the advertisements in which stereotypes are used.
F. AFFECTIVE COMPONENT OF PREJUDICE
This is that which leads to the positive or negative feeling as a result of prejudice
G. Behavioral component of prejudice
Include behavior we show towards others such as discrimination like non verbal discrimination.
Refers to treating of a target group better than the others and this may lead to clash between reality and falsely raised expectations.
G. INNATE VS ACQUIRED VIEWS ON PREJUDICE
Innate views propose that prejudice is inborn within while acquired views are that prejudice is developed in a society by intergroup interactions
H. PREJUDICED PERSONALITY
Such a personality is vulnerable and sensitive to every move of the other group leading to stereotyping
Use of “lame” excuses pin a given form of prejudice
J.PREJUDICE IN SCHOOLS
Prejudice in schools include discriminatory behaviors towards others. For instance in secondary schools form four and three do tend to discriminate against fresh form ones. This is a form of discriminatory behavior.
K. ROLE OF MEDIA IN ACQUISITION OF PREJUDICE
Advertisements that depict the target group either negatively or positively may lead to acquisition of prejudice
Relative deprivation between two groups may lead to intergroup threats which result into negative prejudice
K. HOW INTERGROUP CONTACT CAN LESSEN PREJUDICE
Intergroup contact may develop strong relationship between the people involved hence creating respect among members thereby lessening prejudice
K. ACCULTURATION AND MULTICULTURISM
Acculturation explains the processes resulting to cultural and psychological changethat is brought a bout as aresult of meeting between cultures.multiculturalism on the other hand describes communities made up of different cultures.
L.GENERAL REACTIONS TOWARDS PREJUDICE
Involves negative feeling when in the presence of the group or thinks about them.
Are always stereotypes- they behave in a particular way and may more than often undergo discrimination?
M.STEREOTYPE THREAT EFFECT
N. FIVE STAGE MODEL TO DEALING WITH PREJUDICE
- Direct intergroup contacts
- Social learning
- Social recategorization: us and them
- Cognitive interventions
- Weakening the stereotypes
Refers to stereotypes based on gender
- Characteristics of a defendant that can bias a juror
He is attractive
- Factors that influence eyewitness accuracy
The factors include:
Estimator variable such as age, mood , drug use, time administrator behavior e.t.c
- Misformational effect: is defined as a memory bias which occurs when misinformation affects the people’s report of their own memory
- How accuracy can be improved in line-up procedures
In line up procedures such as line up suspects of crime, accuracy can be increased through carrying out DNA tests so as to identify the real perpetrator.
- Eye witness and an expert witness
An eye witness is a witness who testifies what they perceived through their senses such as hearing, smelling, touching, seeing while expert witness is one who allegedly has specialized knowledge relevant to the subject of interest.
- Jury stimulation research
This is a technique normally used by judges in order to prepare for trial.
- Some factors related to how jury vote
Some of the factors influencing jury’s vote include validity of the evidence, how strong is the evidence witnesses e.t.c.
- Clues indicating that someone is lying.
Facial expression, body expression, language use, sweating e.t.c.
G. contrast deception cues with leakage
Deception cues are uncontrolled non verbal signals which are just lies on the other hand while leakage are information that is obtained from uncontrolled and unconfirmed point.
- Describe the influence of the judge
Despite the fact that trial judge is not required to be a mere moderator, it is prudent to note that there is constitutional line which he/she cannot go beyond so as to ensure that the defendant’s innocency is decided by many judges but not only one.
- Factors related to sentencing inconsistency
Constitution amendments, different cases e.t.c
- Arguments for and against capital punishment
Those who argue against capital punishment insist that capital punishment is against the ten commandments of God which state that you should not kill. Those who are for capital punishment claim that it is justifiable because those who commit death should also be killed.
- Explain the just world hypothesis
Asserts that human actions do yield morally fair and fitting consequences and therefore the noble actions are rewarded while the evil ones punished.
- Three rules of distributive justice
Equity, equality, power, responsibility.
- procedural justice
procedural justice is to do with fairness in any given process which eventually resolves disputes and allocates resources.
- Compare adversarial and inquisitional models.
In adversarial previous decisions by the higher courts are binding on lower courts while in inquisitional there is little use of judicial precedent. In adversarial there is no examination phase while in inquisitional examining phase is conducted in writing.
- Three goals of Canadian health care policy
Create good health, to preserve and strengthen the Canada health act, the foundation of Medicare, to make the healthcare system democratic accountable and representative.
- Two major areas of research inquiry in social psychology of health and illness
Mental health and mental disorders
- Effects of socioeconomic status on health
Rich people have the capacity to get access to better health facilities hence will continue to be healthy while poor people have no capacity to get access to better facilities of healthcare especially when attacked by disease such as cancers hence are likely to die.
- Explain terror management theory
The theory asserts that when people are reminded of their own deaths, they always try to defend such cultural beliefs and acts in order to enhance or to protect their self esteem.
- Describe modeling influences on health behaviors
Modeling influences child eating attitude and eating behavor.
- Distinguish between major events and daily hassles
Major events are items which are so large to call them life events wile hassles are all the items which are not so large to call them life events but can definitely cause stress.
- Link between social support and vulnerability
Availability of social support reduces vulnerability while un availability of social support increases vulnerability.
- Effects of perceived loss of control
Can lead to over taking of alcohol which may in turn cause certain health disorders, can also lead to death as a result of engaging in crime activities.
- Describe type A personality
Concerns how individuals responds to stress. Type A personality tend to be very competitive and self-critical. They are always goal oriented and will always work hard to achieve his/her set goals.
- Describe health belief models
Is a model which do tend to explain and predict the health behavior of an individual?
- Discuss positive psychology and its link to health
It has something to do with creation of human well being and the conditions and strengths which allow human beings to thrive. The well-being of human being is directly related to their health issues.
- Explain protection motivation theory
This theory suggest that we protect ourselves based on the following four factors: vulnerability, efficacy of the recommended preventive behavior, perceived self efficacy and the perceived severity of the threatening event.
- Distinguish between primary and secondary prevention
Primary prevention implies controlling the causal factors while on the other hand secondary prevention implies control of symptoms.
- Five copping strategies to health threats
Regular medial checkups, balanced diet, regular exercises, appropriate eating habits, maintaining high level of hygiene.
- Explain the concept of sickness as a social role
Parsons used functionalist’s theory to examine the social role of sickness by examining the use of the sick role mechanism. The seek person is expected to seek for professional advice and to adhere to treatments so as to get well.
- Describe the experience of pain
Experience of pain depends on the type of disease you are suffering from. For instance if you are suffering from stomach ache then the stomach walls will be itching.
- Examines the concept of stigma as relates to illness
Stigma can be defined as disgrace or discredit which set s a person apart from others. Health stigmas such as mental health interfere with social relations of human beings.
- Some consequences of being a good patient.
Failure to receive proper medical checkups, doct5ors ignoring you
- Discuss patient non compliance
This is the failure of the patient to comply with the doctors directives. For instance, taking medicines e.t.c.
- Define attachment and state three styles of attachment
Is lasting psychological connectedness between human beings? Three styles of attachment: secure, insecure and avoidance.
- Explain why propinquity usually results to liking one another
Because the individuals live approximately closer to one another. This implies that they often meet one another hence developing liking one another. Propinquity can also means sharing same idea. People who share same ideas especially politicians do develop liking of one another.
- Role of physical attractiveness and likability
Men get attracted to attractive females and same applies to females.
- Dispel some myth about beauty.
Make ups causes acne this is totally not true.
- Explain the similarity attraction relationship
Asserts that people get attracted to others who are similar rather than dissimilar to themselves.
- Describe role of reinforcement in attraction
Reinforcement increases attraction to an individual. For instance a lady who reinforces her beauty with make ups is likely to attract many people.
- The role of self disclosure and equity in the development of intimacy.
Contributes to the development of long lasting love relationship. It also contributes to justice, impartiality and compassionate love.
- Role of commitment and investment in relationship
This ensures sustainable long life relationship. It ensures that an individual remains with one partner a factor which helps to prevents diseases such as HIV and AID and other sexual related diseases.
- Explain gender differences in friendship
Research shows that women are more intimate and emotional in their same-sex friendship as compared to men. Research also shows that women do tend to place higher value on their friendship compared to how men do.
- Functions of web in regards to relationships.
Web through social media such as face books can enhance relationships among people.
- Three dimensions of love identified by Sternberg’s triangle
Passion, Intimacy and commitment.
- Gender differences with respect to romantic relationships
Women are considered to be more emotional and sensitive sex compared to men. This implies that break-ups mostly affects women compared to women.
- Consideration involved in remaining in unsatisfying relationship
Financial or family considerations
- Discuss jealousy and relationship
In relationship, jealousy has been linked to several aspects of relationship weakness. It is associated with being emotionally dependent on one partner.
- Distinguish between category and a group
Category variables defines discrete variables for the plots while groups defines an auxiliary classification variables.
- Explain how generic norms are related to out groups
The generic norm helps to regulate the behaviors of the out-group organisms
- Describe the process of social identification
Asserts that various individuals acquire different traits from different group members in which they happen to be in.
- Discuss categorical differentiation
Differentiating of variables in respect to their respective categories.
- Explain cross-categorization.
Fundamental characteristics o how we perceive individuals social groups.
- Explain how language influences group identity
Could influence the socio cultural beliefs of a particular group of people.
- Explain what is meant by group cohesiveness
Force bringing group members together.
Teaching gender roles
Serves as a source of information.
- Explain how norms and roles regulates group behavior
Norms and roles ensure that each individual adheres to the rules and regulation while ensuring that he/she performs his/her roles effectively.
- Explain what is meant by the risky shift effect
Is a situation whereby individuals who participate in a discussion group do tend to advocate for more extreme positions and call for riskier courses of action as opposed to the individuals who did not participate in any such discussion.
- Three basic components of group polarization
Public policy, terrorism, college life and violence.
- Six types of power
Coercion, reward, position, expert or knowledge, interpersonal competence, support.
- Identify four dimension of leader behavior
Expertise, experience and wisdom
Problem solving ability
Personality core beliefs and values
Awareness of self beliefs and values.
- Describe the great person approach to leadership
Asserts that the success of a leaders is determined by his/her intrinsic inherited characteristics and personality.
- Describe the contingency approach to leadership
Asserts that leaders are most effective especially when they make their behavior contingent with the situation in which they are in.
- Describe four qualities of charismatic leaders
Maturity, humility, substance and communication
- Compare male and female leadership
In some instances, there shall be no difference at all in leadership styles between men and women while in other instances, people may perceive men and women to be acting differently depending on how their own socially constructed conceptions of gender. In other instances, differences may be based on work setting.