Section I Statement of the problem
The research problem is determining the relationship between exposure to media and performance in school. However, the given research problem has no relation to any theory. In the research, the stated problem could be investigated empirically through hypothesis testing. The variables in the hypothesis can be set to determine how they relate with each other. Considering that the objective of the research was testing the relative effects of video game, movie, and television screen time and content on school performance of adolescent, the hypothesize was stated that both media content and screen time have independent associations with performance at school. From the hypothesis, the independent variable was screen time and media content while the dependent variable was school performance of adolescents. The variable of screen time was operationally defined as displacing time that would be used in taking part in educational activities like reading and doing school work. In light of the research problem and the given research hypothesis, these variables are appropriate for examining.
Section II Sampling
The researchers identified the subject population clearly. The study utilized middle school students to take part in the survey. Students were recruited from 15 New Hampshire and Vermont middle school and it limited eligibility the one who had more than 150 students. These schools served communities ranging from less than 2000 individuals to more than 100,000. A survey was conducted on students confidentially as class went on using survey proctors. The final sample taken for the study was 4508. Performance at school was assessed by use of responses from self report. The sampling procedures were adequate as they gave a clear representation of the population in question. The population demographics of the population were also adequately evaluated against the research problem hence they give a representative of the population to be generalized by the researcher on the obtained results.
Section III Procedure
The experimental procedure is specified in sufficient detail that could be replicated by the study and the measurement instruments employed were valid and could be relied upon. In testing the displacement hypothesis, four variables measured on visual media like video game weekend screen time, video game weekday screen time, and television/movie weekday screen time. In testing the content hypothesis three variable tested were R-rated movie restriction, parental television content restriction and cable movie channel availability. Evidence and rationale was given for substantiating the validity and reliability of the measurement instruments by noting that they expected content measures to be highly linked with view of venues of adult media as compared to screening measures. This presumption was validated using association with R-rated movie exposure variable. Different judges were used but they were not blind to the experiment treatment; these judges should however have been blind to avoid bias in the results which is likely to be experienced when judges have a knowledge about study.
Section IV. Research Design
The research design used was pretest-posttest design and it was found to be appropriate for testing the stated hypothesis. The design used was not factorial in nature and the levels of the single independent variable are screen time, content, parenting style, and child personality. The research has no threats to internal validity of the study that could act as equal hypotheses for the obtained results, and if there were threats having a control group that does not have exposure to media or have considerably limited access to media can help to avoid these threats. The design used in the study controls threats to external validity adequately.
Section V. Results and Data Analysis
T-test was used for comparing the means for continuous data while chi-square test was used for comparing proportions for categorical variables. The null hypothesis for the t-test was that the means were the same while the null hypothesis for the chi-square test was that the school performance was related with exposure to media. The statistical procedures used were appropriate for the collected data in terms measurement scale and the statistical analyses employed were appropriate for the stated research hypothesis. The statistical analysis used did not have any obvious errors since the relevant statistical analyses were reported in the research.
Section VI. Researcher's Conclusions
The researchers found that both screen time and content exposure have independent detrimental association with school performance and the research conclusions were warranted by the obtained results. In this study, only the appropriate statistical analyses were conducted hence the generalization made was justified. The researcher never attempted to explain any unexpected or non-significant results. The researcher suggested a causal relationship among his observations when the findings indicate correlation; for instance, they noted that time on screen resulted to lack of adequate time to study.
Section VII. Commentary
The study was conducted scientifically; data was sampled through probability means hence no bias was anticipated. The setting of hypothesis and analyzing the results as required provided adequate answers to the problem it set out to investigate. The given answers can be used for suggesting new lines of research; for example, in future research I suggest that a control variable be used in the research, as well as determining which variables have more effect.
Sharif, I, & Sergent, J.D. (2006). Association between television, movie, and video game exposure and school performance, Pediatrics, 118(4). p. 1061-1070.