- How would propylthiouracil affect metabolic rate in a normal rat? Explain why.
It would decrease metabolic rate since propylthiouracil decreases the production of thyroid hormone (“Propylthiouracil,” n.d.).
- Explain the action of insulin on body cells.
Insulin acts on the body cells by promoting absorption of glucose from the blood stream to the body cells. This is done when insulin attaches to the insulin receptors in cells triggering a response that increases the levels glucose transporters (GLUT4) (Cartailler, n.d.).
- If the body is not producing enough insulin what happens to levels of that substance (your answer to 4b)? Why?
Sugar levels will increase and may lead to hyperglycemia. This happens because the lack of insulin disables cells to absorb glucose and as a result with nowhere to go to, blood sugar levels will accumulate in the blood.
- Fully explain the cause (do not merely define the terms) of the three major symptoms of diabetes mellitus: polydipsia, polyphagia, and polyuria.
Polyuria occurs because the kidneys are filtering and absorb the excess sugar due to accumulation of blood glucose levels in blood. This causes more urination which in turn causes dehydration, hence polydipsia follows (“Diabetes symptoms: When diabetes symptoms are a concern,” 2013.). Polyphagia occurs since the lack of insulin impairs the body cell’s glucose absorption causing an energy deficit and as a result: hunger (“Polyphagia-increased appetite,” n.d.).
- Differentiate between type I and type II diabetes.
Both types causes glucose build up in the blood stream. However the difference is that type 1 diabetes occurs there is no insulin produced as a result of beta cell damage caused by the immune system (“Diabetes Basics: Types of Diabetes Causes & Symptoms,” n.d.).
- What is the difference between the effect of glucagon and insulin on blood glucose levels?
Insulin decreases glucose levels in the blood stream by promoting cellular absorption while glucagon increases glucose levels in the blood stream by promoting breakdown of glycogen in cells and releasing them into the blood stream (Morris, 2014).
- A diabetic friend of yours is visiting. You are talking in your kitchen when he suddenly realizes that he has accidentally injected himself with an overdose of insulin. What might you have on hand that you could give him? Why would you give him that? Why is an overdose of insulin dangerous?
Overdose of insulin causes hypoglycemia in which case I will give him sugar or any food that has high glucose levels in it in order to counteract the expected decrease in sugar levels due to insulin. An insulin overdose can cause mild symptoms such as rapid heartbeats, irritability, double/blurred vision, anxiety and more but in large amounts if not treated immediately can lead to coma, disorientation, pale skins, seizures, unconsciousness, and in worst cases death (Story, 2014).
- Suppose your diabetic friend is again visiting two months later, and you find him unconscious. You're awaiting the paramedics, who seem to be taking forever to arrive. Since you know that he is diabetic, should you quickly give him insulin?
No I will not give him insulin. The factors involved are diabetes and unconsciousness. Unconsciousness is a symptom of hypoglycemia which usually happens in diabetic patients who accidentally overdose in insulin or due to diet misconceptions. So regardless of the reason to why he is unconscious, it would be safer not to administer insulin.
- Differentiate between diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus.
Diabetes mellitus is a condition where there is high levels of sugar in the blood due to insulin related complications while diabetes insipidus is a condition where there is an abnormal rate of urination and consequently dehydration due to lack of ADH production or improper kidney function with regard to fluid reabsorption (Stöppler, n.d.)
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Diabetes Basics: Types of DiabetesThe Causes & Symptoms. (n.d.). Retrieved December 2, 2014, from http://www.diabeticcareservices.com/diabetes-education/types-of-diabetes
Morris, S. (2014, August 26). How Insulin and Glucagon Work. Retrieved December 2, 2014, from http://www.healthline.com/health/diabetes/insulin-and-glucagon#Overview1
Polyphagia - Increased Appetite. (n.d.). Retrieved December 2, 2014, from http://www.diabetes.co.uk/symptoms/polyphagia.html
Propylthiouracil: MedlinePlus Drug Information. (n.d.). Retrieved December 2, 2014, from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/meds/a682465.html
Stöppler, M. (n.d.). Diabetes Insipidus: Get the Facts on Treatment and Symptoms. Retrieved December 2, 2014, from http://www.medicinenet.com/diabetes_insipidus/article.htm