It is important to appreciate that there are core similarities and differences between females and males. The elements in focus are evolutionarily and do matter in defining each of the gender. This paper intends to discuss the similarities and variations between females and males.
One of the evident similarities between the two is that both genders have common hormones. For this reason, they take up functions in similar ways, as the hormones are similar. It is almost impossible to classify “female” or “male” hormones. For this, there are important variations within hormone patterns and levels (Wood, Heitmiller, Andreasen, Nopoulos, 2008). On the other hand, there are differences in the way these hormones interact with bodies of the male and female genders. On an average scale, the male gender tends to develop higher levels of distinct androgens (such as testosterone) while the females bear high levels of distinct reproductive hormones such as Estradiol or the Follicle Stimulating Hormone at various intervals of the menstrual cycles (Archer, 2009). On the other hand, such aspects have similar reproductive hormones working within men who are involved in the sperm production process. There are substantial process and patterns overlaps for the entire endocrine system.
The other similarity is in the human brains for both genders. Away from the notable size differences as well as the probability of various differences within the area popular as ‘the straight gyrus’, none of them repeatedly and reliably demonstrates morphological differences in the brain across the sexes (Hyde, 2005). However, this does not mean that there lacks a great variation for the brains within the species as well as within various cases of adult brains for both males and females while reacting differently to a given stimulus. In turn, there are plenty lot of differences in the neurological structure and some functions even though this is on an individual basis and not sexes.
The males and females also compare in their genitals. Away from most people’s thinking that female and male genitals are different, (penis is for males and vagina is for females), this is not necessarily the case. However, this basic dichotomy does not hold as all genitals emerge from similar embryonic tissue masses. In the development’s first six weeks, tissue masses identically develop. From around six all the way to seven weeks, with reference to whether fetuses have XY or XX chromosomes (commonly), such tissues begin the process of differentiation (Archer, 2009). For the element of tissues, there is formation of the penis or clitoris and other elements form scrotum or labia. The other region starts forming into either the ovaries or the testes. This element means that, female and male genitals are physiologically made from similar stuff working in similar ways.
On to the differences, first, it is worth noting that while females bear babies (give birth and gestate) and lactate, the male counterparts do not. On average, males form close to between 10 and 15 percent more than the females while tending to develop more upper body strength. Brains for the males grow for longer and larger as compared to that of females (Hyde, 2005). It is also critical to appreciate that while the human brain remains healthy (between 1,100 and 1,900 centimeters cubic), size is not affecting its function. There are various skeletal differences cutting across between women, men because of childbirth (wider pelvis) while the male size, and musculature is rather rugged in developments upon the male bonesBottom of Form.
Further, there sufficient direction that the existing evolutionary histories amount to important variations between the females and males. However, such histories as well as biology result in the integral similarities across the sexes, which are necessarily important while establishing an understanding of each of their lifestyles. The biological divergence of the males and females relates to the behavioral dissimilarities. This is notable in the physical aggression as well as the reproduction aspects. On the other hand, a majority of the biological characteristics (including the human brains) indicate that females and males have a much more similarity as compared to their differences (Archer, 2009). For the cognitive skills, the most consistent differences for gender are in around verbal, certain spatial skills, and language. For instance, girls produce phrases and words within earlier age. They also have larger vocabularies as they show higher language complexity level while beginning within early childhood stages. The main verbal skills differences while in school-age years favor girls include spelling, writing, and general language measures. Part of the gender differences in this reference appears smaller across the stages of adolescence. Differences in subsequent areas such as writing remain (Wood, Heitmiller, Andreasen, Nopoulos, 2008). The differences remain relatively constant across years of research. These variations in subsequently specific skills appear small while some decrease in the recent past. Consistent gender differences are in favor of males and exist in various spatial skills including mental rotation. This is the ability of visualizing how objects would appear if viewed from different angles. Such differences emerge within the age of 9 to 13 years widening across the adolescence stage. Similar to the verbal skills, gender differences for mental rotation remain stable since the discovery of this concept.
Even so, other average variations between females and males include spatial abilities. Here, the males remain far better as compared to the females with respect to the abilities such as seeing the main object of the minds ranging across different angles. For this reason, men are better at packaging luggage and parcels with odd shapes, and this is a spatial skill. The verbal abilities of the sexes are of remarkable difference. Here, the females appear to talk at earlier ages. Their use of more words coupled with better language and communication skills across their lives is way above the ability of the males (Hyde, 2005). They normally win arguments against men, as the men are not in apposition of handling so many words. The males differ from the females in their aggression levels. Males are physically aggressive even though females become even more aggressive across their subtle and interpersonal ways. Boys go against each other in fights. However, girls also fight, with plenty of gossip as they try to isolate various girls and making them unpopular. The two sexes also differ in their activity bevels. The males are more active as compared to the females. They engage in games that are rougher and tumble while emphasizing on their respective motor skills such as riding bicycles and running within playgrounds. On the other hand, the girls develop an apt element of talking together while activities which do not involve high amounts of continual movement (Archer, 2009). They also differ in their interest levels. Here, the females in general group remain essentially apt towards wanting to join fields that involve people or help others. This includes becoming veterinarians, teachers, or social workers. Males also have plenty of both physical and abstract interests as they seek to be engineers, plumbers, and scientists across fields such as computers or physics.
Archer, J. (2009), Does sexual selection explains human sex differences in aggression. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32: 249–311
Hyde, S. J. (2005), The gender similarities hypothesis, American Psychologist 60(6): 581–92.
Wood, J. Heitmiller, L. D. Andreasen, N. C. Nopoulos, P. (2008), Morphology of the ventral frontal cortex: relationship to femininity and social cognition, Cerebral Cortex 18: 534–40.