III. THE DATA AND THE TREATMENT OF THE DATA
1. The Data Needed
This study intends meeting the intellectual, knowledge level, and abilities of the United States military chaplain corps in their diagnostic and treatment of those afflicted with combat related stress. The target population for the proposed study, thus, consists of two sample groups; (1) military chaplains, and; (2) members of the uniformed services who have served in hostile environments subjecting them to possible stress related (Unwin, Blatchley et al., 1999).
2. Data Collection
Understanding the intrinsic value of the empirical characteristics of qualitative research is core to its philosophical underpinnings fitting into the intention of this study. Through empirical methodologies, qualitative research permits interpretation of constructs of social reality and exploration of first-hand experiences of research participants forming the philosophical underpinnings of this research methodology (Booker, 2009, 389+). Within this framework are the influences on social science open-ended research questions as they align with the intent of the study for outcome data gathering. This paper further discusses these items and provides an example of how these philosophical underpinnings apply to a specific research design and methodology.
According to Booker (2009), “theoretical underpinnings” of qualitative research in researching and interpreting individual participation using empirical research methodology includes study tools of interviewing and observation. Her tenet as a teacher means assuring instruction of qualitative research has a philosophical framework of why and how qualitative research contributes to the study findings as equally as quantitative data (p 389+). In addition, according to Onwuegbuzie, Leech, Slate, Stark, Sharma, Frels, Harris, and Coombs (2012) philosophical underpinnings of qualitative research seeks data from such sources as “interviews, focus groups, surveys, observations, personal journals, diaries/memos, permanent records, transcription of meetings, photographs, audiovisual material, pictures, paintings, and field notes (p 16+)”.
Booker (2009), as a teacher of qualitative research finds instilling the why and how importance of this type of data gathering tool is sometimes an uphill challenge even with her under and graduate students. To this end, Booker explains thinking in terms of “qualitatively” assists in overcoming what she interprets as a “resistance”. Her challenge to teach the philosophical underpinnings of qualitative research with its value to the social sciences and in particular educational research involves instruction of the changing nature of educational research using qualitative theories focusing on learner-centered instruction (p 389+).
Remaining true to the spirit and intentions of this study relates to qualitative research philosophical underpinnings influencing social science research. At the same time, this type methodology specifically affects research questions, data collection approaches, and data analysis according to Booker (2009) in the social science field of psychology. From their own experiences, participants of qualitative research engage in proactive input guided by its philosophical underpinnings for obtaining socially pertinent first-hand information relating to the thesis. This provides how the philosophical and theoretical underpinnings of qualitative research in the social sciences create pertinent questions for interviews, questionnaires, and other personal feedback of participants according to the type of data sought (p 389+).
In her professional experience Booker (2009) educational research – incorporates “approaches of phenomenology, critical race theory, feminist theory, grounded theory, and the case study approach”. These hold to the intrinsic value of the empirical characteristics of qualitative research permitting interpretation of constructs of social reality and exploration of first-hand experiences of research participants alongside the hard numbers/statistics provided through quantitative research data (p 389+).
Using the qualitative methodology of the phenomenology field shows the shift in education embracing the “philosophical focus on the individual” learner experience providing “in-depth description”. In this, Booker (2009) explains creating “significant and valid theories of learning and development” arise from this philosophical underpinning of qualitative research by incorporating use of “smaller scale observations and interviews” as a qualitative methodology. Booker incorporates the validity of qualitative research philosophy through learning from case studies (p 389+).
Walsh-Bowers (2002) conducted qualitative research using the methodology focusing on student and faculty participants as researchers in the field of psychology. Using interview feedback asking faculty participants describe “past and present research experience; how contextual features of the research relationship impinged upon their work; and their opinions concerning the potential for alternative methods, research relationships, and scientific-writing styles to gain legitimacy in the discipline (p 163+)”.
His student participants’ open-ended qualitative interview questions included “how they learned to do research with humans and to write scientifically. In addition, he asked “what exposure they had to alternative methods (e.g., QR) and to complementary writing styles, and what they believed needed to change in psychology, if anything, to legitimize these alternative approaches to research conduct and report-writing (Walsh-Bowers, 2002, p 163+)”.
Clearly, this example of qualitative philosophical underpinnings in a case study shows in Walsh-Bowers own definition is a process “characterized by inductive, flexible exploration of the phenomena of interest by which the investigator seeks to understand rather than predict and control these phenomena; careful attention to the quality of research relationships”. Within the framework of his focus, the feedback provided how “the inter-subjective nature of investigative processes; and cultivation of multiple and partial interpretations” affect the qualitative data gathering (Walsh-Brown, 2002, p 163+).
A phenomenological study is the most viable for this research with implementation in three stages, including a pretest, in-depth structured interviews, and a follow-up after analyzing the collected data conducting the pretest using an electronic questionnaire format of open-ended qualitative style questions. For security purposes, and to ensure confidentiality, participants will receive an individualized password to access the survey. Results of the survey will be sent directly to the researcher for analysis and thus not be posted anywhere on the site.
Conducting the follow-up of the participants will take place via telephone interviews and email correspondence. The researcher will also gather secondary data and collate published studies from various peer-reviewed journals. Noy (2011) adds, the phone follow up is not easily ignored by the respondents in the qualitative methodology of data gathering even to the extent of emails potentially ignored. In the phone conversation, the interviewer has “the opportunity to make a pitch tailored to your potential respondent, as well as to develop a personal connection”. In addition, Noy explains how phone interviews provide time saving methodology over meeting participants in person. The most important stage of the research endeavor is ensuring the validity of the accumulated data (Foss & Ellefsen, 2002).
Ano, G. G. and E. B. Vasconcelles (2005). “Religious Coping And Psychological Adjustment To Stress: A Meta-Analysis.” J Clin Psychol 61(4): 461-480.
Astin, M. C., K. J. Lawrence, et al. (1993). “Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Among Battered Women: Risk And Resiliency Factors.” Violence Vict 8(1):
Booker, K. C. (2009). Shifting Priorities: Reflections on Teaching Qualitative Research Methods. The Qualitative Report, 14(3), 389+.
Brende, J. O. and E. R. Parson (1985). Vietnam Veterans: The Road To Recovery, Plenum Press.
Calhoun, L. G., A. Cann, et al. (2000). “A Correlational Test Of The Relationship Between Posttraumatic Growth, Religion, And Cognitive Processing.” J Trauma Stress 13(3): 521-527.
Corey, G., Corey, M. S., & Callanan, P. (2003). Issues and ethics in the helping professions (6th Ed.). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
Everly, G. S. Jr. (2003). Pastoral Crisis Intervention in Response to Terrorism.
International Journal of Emergency Mental Health, 5, p 1-2
Feemster, S. L. (2009, May). Wellness and Spirituality: Beyond Survival Practices for Wounded Warriors. The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, 78(5), 2+. Retrieved from http://www.questia.com
Foss, C. and B. Ellefsen (2002). “The Value Of Combining Qualitative And Quantitative Approaches In Nursing Research By Means Of Method Triangulation.” J Adv Nurs 40(2): 242-248.
Fontana, A., R. Rosenheck, et al. (1992). “War Zone Traumas And Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptomatology.” J Nerv Ment Dis 180(12): 748-755.
Gall, T. L., Charbonneau, C., Clarke, N. H., Grant, K., Joseph, A. & Shouldice, C. (2005). “Understanding the Nature and Role of Spirituality In Relation To Coping and Health: A Conceptual Framework””. Canadian Psychology, 46, 88-104.
Gallup, G. and D. M. Lindsay (1999). Surveying The Religious Landscape: Trends In US Beliefs, Morehouse Pub.
Gerber, M. M., A. Boals, et al. (2011). “The Unique Contributions Of Positive And Negative Religious Coping To Posttraumatic Growth And PTSD.” Psychology of Religion and Spirituality 3(4): 298.
Green, B. L., J. D. Lindy, et al. (1988). “Long Term Coping With Combat Stress.” J Trauma Stress 1(4): 399-412.
Gross, J. (2010, September 3). Spiritual Leaders in the Battle Zones: Deployed and Stateside, Military Chaplains Minister amid Myriad Pressures. National Catholic Reporter, 46(23), 3a+. Retrieved from http://www.questia.com
Hasenauer, H. (2001, July). “Saving Soldiers from Suicide. Soldiers 56 p 26+
Helgeson, V. S., K. A. Reynolds, et al. (2006). “A Meta-Analytic Review Of Benefit Finding And Growth.” J Consult Clin Psychol 74(5): 797-816.
Herman, J. L. (1997). Trauma and recovery, Basic Books.
Hofer, J. (1934). “Medical Dissertation On Nostalgia.” Bulletin of the History of Medicine 2(6): 376-391.
Jones, F. D. (1995). “Psychiatric Lessons of War.” War Psychiatry. Washington, DC: TMM Publications: p 1-33.
Jones, F. D., L. R. Sparacino, et al. (1995). War Psychiatry, DTIC Document.
Kelly, T. A., & Strupp, H. H. (1992). Patient and Therapist Values in Psychotherapy: Perceived Changes, Assimilation, Similarity, and Outcome. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 60, p 34-40.
Klingler, J. C. R. (1999). “Relation of Adaptation, Life Meaning and Belief in God in Central and Southern Appalachian Culture in Response to the Unexpected and Violent Death of a Child, Union Institute”.
Krystal, H. (1993). “Shattered Assumptions: Towards a New Psychology of Trauma.” J Nerv Ment Dis 181(3): 208.
Lifton, R. J. (1988). “Understanding the traumatized self.” Human adaptation to extreme stress: p 7-31.
Lasota, L. (2004, September 17). Ministry Helps Veterans Deal with Demons of War: Vets Serve Other Vets Suffering from Posttraumatic Stress. National Catholic Reporter, 40(40), 4a+. Retrieved from http://www.questia.com
Mahedy, W. P. (1986). Out of the night: The spiritual journey of Vietnam vets, Ballantine Books.
Marlowe, D. H. (2001). Psychological and Psychosocial Consequences of Combat and Deployment: With Special Emphasis on the Gulf War. Santa Monica, CA: Rand. Retrieved from http://www.questia.com
Maze, R. (2010). “18 Veterans Commit Suicide Each Year”. Army Times, Gannett Company.
McBride, J. L. B. (1998). Spiritual crisis: Surviving trauma to the soul, Routledge.
Mcgrane, M. (2011) “Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in the Military: The Need for Legislative Improvement of Mental Health Care for Veterans of Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom”. Journal of Law and Health. 24(1); p 183+
Meagher, I. (2007). Moving a nation to care: post-traumatic stress disorder and America’s returning troops, Ig Publishing.
Mendenhall, M. (2009). Chaplains in Mental Health: Healing the Spiritual Wounds of War. Annals of the American Psychotherapy Association, 12(1), 8+. Retrieved from http://www.questia.com
Meyer, M. (2008, January 1). Chaplains Complete Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Training. Warrior – Citizen, 53, 11.
Murad, K. A. (1991). The Relationship Of Religiosity To Level Of Psychopathology In Vietnam Veterans, University of Nebraska, Lincoln.
Muse, S., & Bloomstrom, G. L. (2006, July/August). “Warrior, Prophet, Priest: the Strategic Value of Chaplains to the War Effort and Community”. Infantry, 95, 18+.
North, O. (2005, March 28). God Bless Chaplains in Afghanistan, Iraq. Human Events, 61(11), 5. Retrieved from http://www.questia.com
Ogden, P, Minton, K., & Pain, C. (2006). Trauma and the Body.New York: W. W. Norton & Co.
Onwuegbuzie, A. J., Leech, N. L., Slate, J. R., Stark, M., Sharma, B., Frels, R., et al. (2012). An Exemplar for Teaching and Learning Qualitative Research. The Qualitative Report, 17(1), 16+. Retrieved July 8, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=oandd=5053248094
Pargament, K. I. (1997). “The Psychology of Religion and Coping: Theory, Research.” Practice: Pg. 38.
Phan, D. L. and J. B. Kingree (2001). “Sexual Abuse Victimization And Psychological Distress Among Adolescent Offenders.” J Child Sex Abus 10(4): 81-90.
Prati, G. and L. Pietrantoni (2009). “Optimism, Social Support, And Coping Strategies As Factors Contributing To Posttraumatic Growth: A Meta-Analysis.” Journal of Loss and Trauma 14(5): 364-388.
Racklin, J. M. (1998). The roles of sense of coherence, spirituality, and religion in responses to trauma, California School of Professional Psychology, Alameda.
Satcher, D. S. (2000). “Executive Summary: A Report Of The Surgeon General On Mental Health”. Public Health Rep 115(1): 89-101.
Schuster, M. A., B. D. Stein, et al. (2001). “A National Survey Of Stress Reactions After The September 11, 2001, Terrorist Attacks.” N Engl J Med 345(20): 1507-1512.
Shay, J. (1991). “Learning About Combat Stress From Homer’sIliad.” J Trauma Stress 4(4): 561-579.
Shephard, B. (2002). A War Of Nerves, Vintage.
Shudro, C. (2005). The Unseen Wounds of War. Retrieved July 11, 2012, from http://yalemedicine. yale.edu/ym_au05/war.html
Sinclair, N. D. (1993). “Horrific Traumata: A Pastoral Response To The Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder”, Routledge.
Steer, J. L. and C. Dudley (1982). Vietnam: Curse or Blessing, New Leaf Press.
Tedeschi, R. G. and L. G. Calhoun (1996). “The Posttraumatic Growth Inventory: Measuring the Positive Legacy of Trauma.” J Trauma Stress 9(3): 455-471.
Thompson, P. C., H. A. Norton, et al. (2004). The United States Army Chaplaincy, Office of the Chief of Chaplains, Dept. of the Army.
Unwin, C., N. Blatchley, et al. (1999). “Health of UK Servicemen Who Served in Persian Gulf War.” Lancet 353(9148): 169-178
van der Kolk, B. A., A. C. McFarlane, et al. (1996). “A General Approach to Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.”
Veroff, J., R. A. Kulka, et al. (1981). “Mental Health In America: Patterns Of Help-Seeking From 1957 To 1976” Basic Books New York
Walsh. R. (2007). The World of Shamanism: New Views on an Ancient Tradition. Woodbury, MN: Llewellyn Publication
Walsh-Bowers, R. (2002). Constructing Qualitative Knowledge in Psychology: Students and Faculty Negotiate the Social Context of Inquiry. Canadian Psychology, 43(3), 163+. Retrieved July 8, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=oandd=5035234612
Watts, F. (2007). “Emotion Regulation and Religion”. In J. J. Gross (Ed.), Handbook of Emotion Regulation. pp. 504-520. New York: Guilford Press.
Weaver, A. J. (1995). “Has There Been A Failure To Prepare And Support Parish-Based Clergy In Their Role As Frontline Community Mental Health Workers: A Review.” J Pastoral Care 49(2): 129-147.
Weaver, A. J., H. G. Koenig, et al. (1996). “Posttraumatic Stress, Mental Health Professionals, And The Clergy: A Need For Collaboration, Training, And Research”. J Trauma Stress 9(4): 847-856.
Weinrich, S., S. B. Hardin, et al. (1990). “Nurses Respond To Hurricane Hugo Victims’ Disaster Stress”. Arch Psychiatr Nurse 4(3): 195-205.
Williams, M. B., & Sommer, J. F., Jr. (Eds.). (1994). Handbook of Post-Traumatic Therapy. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. Retrieved from http://www.questia.com
Yeomans-Kinney, A., Emery, G., Dudley, W.M., and Croyle, W.T. (2002). “Screening Behaviors among African American Women at High Risk for Breast Cancer: Do Beliefs about God Matter”? Oncology Nursing Forum. 29 (5): 835-845.
Zeidner, M. (1993). “Coping With Disaster: The Case Of Israeli Adolescents Under Threat Of Missile Attack”. Journal of Youth and Adolescence 22(1): 89-108.