The goal of critical thinking is the development of thinking skills. The ability to make informed decisions, work with information, analyze various aspects of the phenomena, and so on. This technology aims to develop the student basic indicators which are estimates, openness to new ideas, their own opinion and the reflection of their own judgment.
1. Critical thinking is a system of judgment that is used for the analysis with the formulation of valid conclusions and correctly apply the results to the situations and problems. Critical thinking implies the use of cognitive techniques or strategies that increases the probability of obtaining the desired end result. This definition characterizes thinking as something different controlled, validity and purposefulness, this type of thinking is helpful in solving problems, formulating conclusions probabilistic assessment and decision-making. Evaluation of personal critical thinking is the ability to search and find the causes and alternative viewpoints, perceive the situation as a whole and to change its position on the facts and arguments. Critical thinking must be distinguished from the critical installation. Despite the fact that due to the specifics of their approach to problem solving critical thinking prevents some ideas or discards them for incompetence. In contrast, a critical facility is destructive in nature. The desire for the only person to criticize the criticism is more emotional than cognitive in nature. Critical thinking is deductive in nature: the individual takes possession of the intellectual skills of critical thinking is a specific scientific discipline and can apply them in various fields (Paul, Binker, 1990). While inductive emphasizes critical thinking, it is inseparable from the scientific field, and a necessary condition for a critical examination of the problems of a scientific discipline is a deep knowledge of the discipline itself.
2. There are several types of blocks that imply specific constraints in thinking peculiar restrictions. It may be self-limiting, associated with inactivity and screen our thinking and barriers caused by our limited experience. The block may serve as worship of the living human authority or dead (Freud believed that all mental disorders caused by the Oedipus complex, so if a person has a psychological problem, it means that there has not been without sexual desire). It can also be a taboo, based on an erroneous analogy (this is similar to the search for a perpetual motion machine). An extremely effective way to suppress new ideas - the idea that no one has the right to question certain decisions if he did not offer anything better or more demonstrative.
Critical thinking is self-directed and self-correcting thinking. It involves an agreement with strict standards, which entails effective communication and problem-solving ability and commitment to overcome our natural self-centeredness and sociocentrism (Harwood et al., 2001).
Basic parameters of critical thinking (which is part of the global thinking), filled with content and defining the goals of education, the perception of the modern world, knowledge of the world in combination with all its sides and in this world, the openness of the individual in relation to the new, the ability to see alternative solutions to problems and overcoming stereotypes.
Thus, the prior knowledge displayed on the level of awareness. Now they can become the basis for the assimilation of new knowledge that allows us to effectively bind the new information with previously known and consciously, a critical approach to the understanding of new information.
3. Human nature implies individual system response and argumentation, including, for example, the interests that form specific needs. Therefore, people will always disagree in their views and assessments. The argument is a logical premise, used alone or in conjunction with others to prove the truth of certain statements that are called thesis. Thesis to be considered true, all arguments should contain true information sufficient to prove the thesis with the help of true logical reasoning.
The argument applies not only to the inference by parcels on the truth or acceptability of other statements. Moreover, such arguments are used to verify the (indirect evidence), tampering (showing that claims arising from the investigation are false), organizing (constructing explanations based on general principles) (Toulmin, 2003). The argument is always accompanied by evidence. Proof is a logical operation, during which substantiates the truth of judgment.
Any evidence includes a thesis that we have to prove and base or arguments. The evidence may be direct or indirect. Direct proof of the truth of the thesis is made by finding convincing arguments and indirect - by opening the fallacy contrast it antithesis. Sometimes referred to as the antithesis of the evidence to the contrary. Logical errors relating to the arguments occur in cases where the basic rights of the evidence. At the heart of many errors committed by people who are guided by their illiteracy logic. Logical errors have at least two properties that distinguish them from other administrative errors: first, they can be arbitrarily long time (decades, centuries and perhaps millennia); secondly, they may be performed purposely.
4. The media often use the trick that the audience almost never fails to recognize is called "illegitimate analogy." In this case, to prove this or that thought used the analogy between the phenomena completely disproportionate. Often such a logical fallacy is a necessary step when the author wants to use the advertising is very impressive metaphor. The mass media make inferences based on "after that - so because of this." In this case, a temporary connection between the phenomena of cause and effect is replaced. This logical error audience copywriters tend not to notice. In a newspaper advertisement we can see an attended headline: "Decent news for decent people." News can not be decent or indecent. They can be good and bad, expected and unexpected, and so on. The phrase “decent news" - is absurd.
Another example of the absurdity can serve as a headline in the printed advertisement company selling computers: "Punching the wall of mistrust Do not overpay! Buy a computer on credit. " Hardly anyone can logically link the first sentence of the second. Moreover, usually the total amount paid for the goods sold on credit, is somewhat greater than the amount paid for the goods immediately and completely.
5. Literary editing is one of the most important conditions for a quality publication of newspapers, magazines, books. An important aspect of the editor is to assess the quality of the text logical. Presented by the author text can be very interesting, the actual material can meet certain requirements, even the shape of a cause for criticism, but if the reflections of the author illogical conclusions are unconvincing. The editor has to know not only the wording of the basic laws of logic, but also to imagine the mechanism of occurrence of errors in logic, their fixation in the text, the effect of errors on the communicative effect and is widely interpreted this part of the work on the literary material. For example: “A content analysis of teacher-education program was conducted for two universities. In addition, a sample of university professors, students and teachers were surveyed and interviewed to gain a fuller understanding of the teacher education programs and their relation to action research” (Eid, 2014). In this passage the article clear violation of the law of identity: it is not clear what the author wanted to tell you, in two paragraphs of a few issues and no transitions from one topic to another. Act of contradiction implies that they can not be simultaneously used two opposite judgments about one and the same subject, taken in the same relation to one and the same time. The wording in the same respect means that the object is characterized by one point of view (Coulby, Bash, 1991). A reservation at one and the same time introduced into the wording of the law due to the fact that over time, the situation may change and the true before it becomes untrue. This law is known since the days of Aristotle, who formulated it this way: it is impossible that opposing allegations were true together. The cause of the contradictions can be admitted indiscipline, the confusion of thought, lack of awareness, various subjective reasons and intentions of the author. Precision matching opposite statements, clarity of their wording, structural clarity of the text make it clear to the law, contribute to the logical definition of presentation, can achieve consistency of thought.
A prerequisite of compliance of the third law of logic is that compared the statements need to be really inconsistent, that is, those between which there can be a middle, third, intermediate concepts.
6. Science as an independent form of spiritual culture is characterized by a number of specific features that differ from pseudoscience. We will list the most important features of science.
Science tends to a large degree of accuracy and objectivity of their statements, that is, their general validity and acknowledged. It seeks to minimize the subjective element in their constructions, to ensure that the conclusions and results were equally compelling for all people, regardless of their personal characteristics, desires, tastes and preferences (Shermer, 2002). Therefore, science has developed two criteria on which to distinguish scientific knowledge from pseudoscientific.
The first of them is the principle of verification, by virtue of which only is scientific knowledge, which can be confirmed (in one way or another, directly or indirectly, sooner or later) (Misak, 1995). This principle was proposed by the famous English philosopher and scientist of the 20th century. Bertrand Russell. However, to distinguish science from pseudoscience alone verification principle is not enough: pseudoscience sometimes so skillfully and artfully builds his argument that seems to be all the things she says, is confirmed. Therefore, the principle of verification is supplemented by the second criterion, which was proposed by a major German philosopher Karl Popper. This principle of falsification, whereby only the knowledge is scientific, which can be (in one way or another, directly or indirectly, sooner or later) to refute.
At first glance, the principle of falsification sounds strange: it is clear that scientific knowledge can be confirmed, but how to understand the statement in which it can be refuted. The fact that science is constantly evolving, moving forward: the old scientific theories and hypotheses are changed by new, refuted by them; so the science is not only important corroboration of theories and hypotheses, but their refutable.
7. Critical thinking involves asking questions and clarification of issues to be solved. Original cognitive process at any stage is characterized by the desire to solve the problems of knowing and answering questions arising from its own interests and needs. Focusing on the problems of stimulating the natural curiosity of people and encourages them to think critically. The man really thinks only in solving a specific problem and find its own way out of a difficult situation. Through critical thinking solution from routine work turns into a purposeful, meaningful activities in which the students doing a real intellectual work and come to solve real-life problems. Man collects, analyzes texts, maps, alternative perspectives and possibilities of using collective discussion, so people look for and find answers to their questions. Critical thinking is committed to convincing argument. Critical thinking person finds his own solution to the problem and supports this decision reasonable, justifiable reasons. The use of technologies such as the development of critical thinking, helps a person to master the laws of knowledge opens up opportunities for individualization of learning, facilitates active acquisition of knowledge, the development of cognitive interest and contains elements of creativity.
Coulby, D., & Bash, L. (1991). Contradiction and conflict: The 1988 Education act in action. Cassell.
Eid, F. H. (2014). Research, higher education and the quality of teaching: Inquiry in a Japanese academic context. Research in Higher Education.
Harwood, R. L., Handwerker, W. P., Schoelmerich, A., & Leyendecker, B. (2001). Ethnic category labels, parental beliefs, and the contextualized individual: An exploration of the individualism-sociocentrism debate. Parenting: Science and Practice, 1(3), 217-236.
Misak, C. J. (1995). Verificationism: its history and prospects. Psychology Press.
Paul, R. W., & Binker, A. J. A. (1990). Critical thinking: What every person needs to survive in a rapidly changing world. Center for Critical Thinking and Moral Critique, Sonoma State University, Rohnert Park, CA 94928.
Shermer, M. (2002). Why people believe weird things: Pseudoscience, superstition, and other confusions of our time. Macmillan.
Toulmin, S. E. (2003). The uses of argument. Cambridge University Press.