- Discuss in detail the concept of Utilitarianism and its impact on society.
Utilitarianism holds that a proper course of action is one that maximizes utility by reducing suffering and maximizing happiness. The concept of utilitarianism adds that the moral worth appended t an action is solely determined by its resulting outcome. Theorists add that the greatest measure of right or wrong is the happiness of the greatest number of people. The influence of utilitarianism is widespread and permeates politics, law and economics. In law, the concept of utilitarianism justifies the punishment intended to preempt further crimes by protecting the community from the offender or rehabilitating him. In politics, utilitarianism supports democracy as a way of making government interests coincide with the interests of the general population.
- Compare and contrast the Rights Theories versus the Theories of Justice. Which do you consider to be more valid and why.
Rights theories emanated from natural law. Aristotle found that natural rights provide a premise for the concept of justice. A society that takes justice seriously acknowledges autonomy, equal dignity and equality of worth for every human being. As such, rights theories base their arguments in the premise that acknowledgement of rights is a prerequisite for justice. Justice theories on the other hand pursue the equal distribution of opportunities. They address historical injustices like the mistreatment of African Americans by the whites and the Jews by the Nazis in Germany. Although they work using different philosophies, they all champion for the just treatment of individuals. I consider the rights theories to be more valid than theories of justice. This is because the acknowledgment of rights is the first step to the administration of justice. Rights theories address the basic issues to the administration of justice.
- Discuss the concepts of Stockholder Management versus Stakeholder Management.
A stockholder is a provider of capital in an enterprise. As such, he is the profiteer of the said enterprise. The stockholder assumes the role of a financial investor in that he lends his current capital to an enterprise with the expectations of a return of more capital in future. The concept of stockholder management requires that the management serves the interest of the stockholder and corporation by maximizing the stockholder’s wealth. On the other hand, the stakeholder, being anyone with vested interests in a corporation, including customers, employees and the community. The stakeholder management concept requires that management duties be broadly construed to incorporate other constituents like creditors, employees, suppliers, customers and the community.
- Compare Ethical Leadership versus Unethical Leadership. What are the characteristics of each?Ethical leadership is the type that offers direction in am manner that upholds the dignity and rights or others as well as the established moral standards. Ethical leadership has the following characteristics: -
- A high awareness of values and regular communication to make sure that the values are understood throughout the organization.
- High accountability for values where the people are evaluated based on value-driven practices tempered with zero tolerance for violations of values.
- Decision making that is driven by values. An ethical leader ensures that decisions are in accordance with the values of the organization before they are implemented.
Unethical leadership is the type that disregards due process and tramples on the rights of individuals in the pursuit of set objectives. Unethical leadership has the following characteristics:
- Nepotism: - this is where a leader appoints his kin into coveted positions.
- Unethical leadership thrives on the ignorance of others.
- Unethical leadership does not consider the effect their choices have on others.
- What is Whistle-Blowing and where do ethics enter into the concept?
Whistle blowing describes an act where an employee or a former employee discloses what he perceives illegal or unethical behavior. Whistle blowing can be done internally where the disclosure is made to the higher management or externally where the disclosure is made to an external authority. Ethics enter into the concept of whistle blowing where some see whistle blowers as traitors and violators of the loyalty norms in an organization. Others perceive whistle blowers as heroes who defend values that are considered more important than loyalty norms in a company. Whistle blowing has a lot to do with ethics as it symbolizes a person’s understanding that some actions in their organization are harmful and infringes on individuals rights or detracts from common good.
- Where do ethics enter into the hiring decision? Please give multiple examples.
The hiring process is a sensitive part of the running of an organization. The competency and other attributes of those hired have an effect on the performance of an organization. Even as mangers put many stops to ensure that only the best are hired for the job, it is important to incorporate ethics into the hiring decision. For instance, it is unethical for a manager to hire an individual out of nepotism. The close relations might cloud the manager’s objectivity in scrutinizing the competencies of the job seeker. It is also the responsibility of the hiring manager to scrutinize the job seeker for background issues that might affect his/her performance in the organization. However, the manager should exercise ethics in the information he seeks for. For instance, a manager should not enquire for personal information from the job seeker or use illegal means to obtain such information. The hiring manager should also not take kickbacks or bribes in order to guarantee a vacancy. Hiring should be done on merit.
- Discuss Sexual Harassment and its impact on the modern day workplace. Again, please provide example.
Sexual harassment is any non-verbal, verbal or physical behavior of a sexual nature or any conduct that is based on sex and affects the dignity of men and women, and is unreasonable, unwelcome and odious to the recipient. Sexual harassment has a significant impact on the modern day workplace. For instance, the use of an individual’s submission or rejection to such conduct implicitly or explicitly as a premise for a decision that has an impact of the individual’s job affects the performance of the person. Such conduct fosters a hostile, humiliating and intimidating working environment, especially for the recipient. Examples of conducts amounting to sexual harassment include sending sexually explicit videos, sharing lewd jokes and sexual anecdotes and unwanted physical touch of a sexual nature.
- Has Affirmative Action outlived its usefulness in today’s workplace? Opinion Question: you will be graded on how you support/defend your opinion and any examples you give, NOT by whether your instructor agrees with your opinion.
I am of the opinion that affirmative action has not outlived its usefulness in today’s workplace. Contrary arguments posit that affirmative action affords an unfair advantage to the minorities and that it is time for governments to adopt colorblind policies when dealing with its citizens. However, this cannot be so when people are still handicapped by factors like race. From studies, it has been established that African Americans still undergo discrimination when looking for jobs and other services their financial status notwithstanding. Whether subtle or overt, prejudice still remains. Owing to this, affirmative action levels the playing ground by giving the minorities and the discriminated a fair chance at success. With time, affirmative action might spell the end for prejudice and stereotypes. Various figures in society have been beneficiaries of affirmative action. For instance, Collin Powell might not have qualified for General’s candidacy until a more diverse list was provided. This was an acknowledgement of the need for affirmative action even in the highest rings of power.