Orem Self-Care Deficit Nursing Theory
According to Parker and Smith (2010), individuals have the ability to learn perform health care, this type of care is referred to as Therapeutic Self-Care Demand (TSCD). They also states that the Orem Self-Care Deficit Nursing Theory was formulated to explain why patients need nursing care and why patients should be assisted through nursing. This theory also states that individuals continue to demand self-care. (Parker and Smith, 2010, pp 121)
The self care theory on the other hand states that, individuals have the power and capabilities to learn and perform TSCD through self care agency, this can be achieved by first knowing what can be done, then deciding what should be done and finally providing care. Nursing is therefore needed if TSCD exceeds the self-care agency of an individual due to health reasons. (Parker and Smith, 2010, pp 121)
Roy's Adaptation Nursing theory
This theory states that individuals are adaptive and have coping processes, which help in the transformation of the individual and the environment. The role of nursing is therefore to promote positive coping and adaptation, which contribute to quality of life and health. The theory stipulates some coping subsystems, which include the regulator-cognator that is individual, centred, the regulator in this case refers to a subsystem that involves coping with the environment using physiological processes, and cognator in this case refers to a subsystem that involves interacting with the environment using emotional and cognitive processes. The other subsystem is the stabiliser-innovator that is group related process. stabiliser in this case refers to a subsystem that involves use of structure, values and activities to achieve the purpose of a group. Innovator on the other hand refers to a subsystem that involves changes and innovation in response to the environment. (Parker and Smith, 2010, pp 167)
According to this theory, adaptation supports health and that health reflects the adaptation processes, there are various levels of adaptation and they include the integrated level which is characterised by adaptation that meet an individuals needs. The compensatory level is characterised challenges that activate the subsystems. The compromised level is characterised by inadequate compensatory processes. This theory therefore focuses on improving the processes of individuals and groups by showing how adaptation can be promoted through the subsystems. Nursing should therefore focus on helping individuals to use their cognitive abilities to cope with the environment effectively. (Parker and Smith, 2010, pp 167)
King's Conceptual System and Goal Attainment Theory
According to this theory, there are three interacting systems, which include the social system, personal system and interpersonal system. There are concepts for each system, concepts are reference points that provide a structure to organise ideas. Concepts are developed though a process. When individual interact, human processes can be observed, during interactions, goals are set and information exchanged. Through documentations, nurses can write down these conversations and therefore determine whether set goals were met. (Parker and Smith, 2010, pp 146)
Betty Neuman's Neuman Systems Model
This theory perceives nursing a whole system that is made of parts, in nursing there is energy that moves away or towards the system. Negetropy refers to a situation where the energy moves toward the system and this result into complexity and development of the system. Entropy refers to a situation where energy moves to extinction and this result into disorganisation, systems will always try to be steady among these disruptive forces also known as stressors. This theory states that earlier interventions can be used to mitigate these forces in the client system. Preventive measures include primary prevention, which involves assessments that identify stressors and efforts made to reduce or prevent reaction to stressors. Secondary prevention involves interventions on symptoms that emerge from stressor reactions. Tertiary prevention on the other hand involves adaptation processes to move back patients to primary prevention. (Parker and Smith, 2010, pp 182).
Parker, M. and Smith, M. (2010). Nursing Theories & Nursing Practice. (3rd Ed.). New York: F.A. Davis Company.