Explanation of theory
The self image congruence theory suggests that consumers will choose those products which match their own perceived personal attributes. In the making of this choice, a perception of the self is divided into two; the ideal self and the actual self. The ideal self is used by consumers for self comparison when purchasing highly expressive products such as high end cars. The actual self is used as a means of comparison when making purchases for functional everyday products (D’Astous & Bitz 2003).
The second theory is the Freud’s theory of personality. It is based on the Freudian argument that an adult personality is as a result of a conflict between people’s desire to gratify their physical needs and the need to function as a responsible member in the society which is carried out in the mind among three systems (Loudon 2001). The first system is the id which is oriented entirely towards immediate gratification without any concern for logic or selflessness. The second system is the superego which counteracts against the id. The superego uses the society’s rules and prevents the id from seeking self gratification. The third system is the ego which acts to mediate between the id and the superego by balancing the desires of the two. The Freudian personality theory in effect implies that purchases made by consumers may be influenced by forces unconscious to the consumer. The theory also implies that symbolism of products is used by the ego to compromise the opposing demands of the id and the superego (Park & Lee 2005).
Application of theory
The product that I purchased was an ipad which offered portability, web experience on the move and a high multimedia experience. Based on the image congruence theory, the product purchase was based on my actual self perception. I perceive myself as a hardworking individual, and the ipad met this perception by offering a service through which I can read books online while on the move. It thus offered a practical use in my academics and would thus assist in the achievement of daily tasks more easily. I am a lover of music and movies, and the ipad thus offered another practical application of my daily tasks since I can use it to watch music and movies from the internet. Thus, the ipad as a product appealed to my perception of my actual self rather than my ideal self when I decided to purchase the product.
Based on the Freudian personality theory, my purchase of the ipad could have been indeed a compromise between my superego and my id. If I had been purely motivated by selfish desires, I would have purchased a high definition television and a surround theatre system for my movie and music experience and to meet the demands of my superego, I would have made a subscription to a reputable library for my academic readings requirement. The decision to purchase the ipad could have thus met the Freudian personality theory by reconciling the selfish needs for movie and music entertainment and the socially acceptable need for hard work in academics.
Relationship between self image congruence and Freudian personality theories with marketing strategies
Review of marketing activities
The advertisements for the ipad show both its practical use in daily tasks such as reading books and newspapers. The pricing of the ipad is also lower than would be used to purchase specialty equipment for music and movie entertainment but also higher than would be used to purchase books directly from the book store. Based on the self image congruence theory, the ipad is more likely to appeal to the actual self, and thus its practicality as illustrated in its advertisements are meant to appeal to the practical actual self image to make the purchase to meet the practical day-to-day needs of the consumer. The Freudian personality theory is also exploited in the advertisements and pricing marketing strategies. The price of the ipad, which ranges between $499 and $ 699, reconciles the selfish needs of the id for the purchase of selfish and self gratifying entertainment equipment with the social norm which look down upon extravagance. The pricing thus meets the Freudian personality theory assumptions.
Recommendations on marketing strategies for ipad
The producers of the ipad should develop advertisements which illustrate both the practical usage of the ipad and its superior entertainment qualities, thus effectively using the self image congruence theory to attract more customers (Helgeson & Supphellen 2004). The pricing should also be different in different markets since the income levels in some markets may make the current price appear too low or too high and thus distorting the Freudian personality theory premise. The price in different markets should therefore match the income levels of the consumers so that the Freudian personality theory of reconciling the id and the superego are achieved through the price and make the product more successful (Hoyer & Macinnis 2009).
D’Astous A. & Bitz P. 2003, ‘A scale for measuring store personality’, Psychology and Marketing, vol 20, no.5, pp 455-496
Helgeson J.G. & Supphellen M. 2004, ‘A Conceptual and measurement comparison of self congruity and brand personality’, International Journal of Market Research, vol 46, no 2, pp 205-233
Hoyer W. D. & Macinnis D. J. 2009, Consumer behaviour, Cengage Learning: New York
Lantos G. P. 2010, Consumer behaviour in action, M. E. Sharpe: New York
Loudon 2001, Consumer behaviour: concepts and applications, Mcgraw-Hill Education: New York
Park S.Y. & Lee E.M. 2005, ‘Congruence between brand personality and self-image, and the mediating roles of satisfaction and consumer-brand relationship on brand loyalty’, Asia-Pacific Advances in Consumer Research, vol 6, pp. 39-45