What were the settlements and lifestle of the people living in during the Mesolithic (i.e. Kebarans discussed in Ristvet, Ch 2)?
The settlement and lifestyle of the people who lived in the Mesolithic period comprised of people who had a nomadic lifestyle .They were hunter gatherers who had adopted fishing as one of their characteristics.
What are the consequences of farming, in terms of both physical health of people and changed social relations, economics, etc? (Diamond 1987 and Ristvet Ch. 2)
The adoptability of farming brings forth the improvements of the health of people .farming enables the production of food which is used for the nutrition of the whole community
Farming is used as a source of income in that the goods that were used got from the farming were traded either using batter trade or the exchange for a product of value .This elevated the social status of the people who practised farming. Farming therefore improved the economic status of the people who adopted it as a source of income.
What kinds of structures & settlements are people living in during the Neolithic? Particularly Abu Hureyra before and after the transition to agriculture (Ristvet ch. 2).
The Neolithic people were style accustomed to the nomadic lifestyle and thus lived a subsistence lifestyle .This kind of lifestyle reflected on thee type of houses they built .The houses consisted of the use of stones since this was a Stone Age era. This marked the use of stones in their buildings which were developed for this period in time.
What does the shift from circular hut compounds to rectangular houses at Abu Hureyra indicate about changes in ideology about privacy, the concept of community, and cultural norms about food sharing? (Ristvet Ch. 2)
The use to rectangular houses from circular huts indicates that the Abu Hureyra began to see the need for privacy and the separation of property. The rectangular houses also brought about the need for more space in that the population began to increase. It was also a new trend of beatifying the house This was their for a sign of the development which influenced the current structure we live in today.
Where did the Natufians live? What was their subsistence strategy? What kinds of settlements did they have? How did they differ from the Kebarans? (Ristvet Ch. 2)
The Natufians lived in elongated enclosure walls which were uncovered on the top. Their was also an existence of circular walls which had slab pavements .This shows the level of development that the community had. They were initially hunter gatherers but ventures into other activities sch as fishing and agriculture.
The kebarans lived in high frequencies of caved bladeless which were rectangular in nature. They lived in a cold location which consisted of desert like feature this .was the reason for their enclosed homes which were built as a means of protection from bad weather
The Asian skull cult was a religious practice of a group of skulls that was done by primitive people in the Palaeolithic period. The cult practiced worship of the skulls was intended to honour and pay tribute to the dead who were considered to be the guardians of these communities
Where was the earliest evidence of domestication?
The earliest forms of domestication were discovered in Egypt, Mesopotamia and china .Evidence of ruin was spotted in the sites such as Ur. These ruins were in form of stones that the people use do live in .A number of vegetations were also discovered in this area.
How many places in the world did domestication occur as an independent event?
Domestication occurred in the mainly three places namely Egypt, Mesopotamia and China. It late spread to places such as the Greek and Roman lands that have both been prone to numerous archaeologist activities.
As discussed in class, what are the different theories for the transition to agriculture associated with Morgan (natural evolution), Childe (neolithic revolution), Binford & Cohen (Edge Hypothesis)?
Neolithic revolution consisted of the change in the hunting gathering type of farming to the adaptations of agriculture as a way of life. This shows that farming was born after the end of the ice age period .After the settlement of the hunter gatherers they began to developed few methods of farming which may have been self taught. These plants consisted of cereals and the improvement of the previously harvested plants.
The natural evolution stems from the idea that the hunter gatherers migrated to areas where they found vegetation that was already inexistence .The inhabitants then learned how to look after the plants which they later adopted as their source of food.
Why did Agriculture begin during the 'Holocene?' (Ristvet Ch. 2)
The Holecene climate has been said to have paved way for the practice of agriculture. Denmark was one the first recorded country to have these types of climate. The change in sea level brought about the domestication of cattle from the near east. The marine forelands provided grazing potential for the cattle .The cattle was due for the production of milk, skin, and a source of food for these inhabitants .This created the need to invest in agriculture due to its social/economic gains.
What was the Younger Dryas, and how did it factor in to the origins of rye and barley domestication? (Ristvet)
Younger Dryas was a period in the 10000 BC that consisted of warm temperatures that increased the rate of precipitation that was adequate for the production of rye and barley which were very economical substances in at that time. The production of these products required for the people to settle thus it encouraged the domestication.
How did humans likely first domesticate plants? (Ristvet Ch. 2
Humans were said to have first domesticated plants due to the change in climate. The change in climate is essential for the growth of plants .With the realisation of climate that was favourable for the growth of plants. They then noticed the growth of shrubs which improved with the improvement of the climate. Human beings then adopted more developed methods of farming
What criteria are necessary for successful domestication of large mammals?
The successful domestication of large animals required investment in the equipment’s Mammals require allot of food for their sustenance, a farmer therefore needs to invest in the nutritional foods that is beneficial for the growth of the mammal .One needs to look at the housing requirements for the animals since they take up large spaces.
What is the difference between the Progressivism and the Revisionist approaches to understanding the transition to agriculture, as outlined by Diamond (1987)?
The progressive approach to agriculture involved the early inhabitants who adopted farming to supplement their diet. It was also an easier approach to getting foods which required allot of intense labour to producing the case of the farming of animals.
The revisionist approach refers to the maintainers of the hunter gathering way of agriculture .They argue that this way of agriculture was more of relaxing than tasking. It has also been said to produce more nutritious foods as opposed to the adaptation of farming
What are typical diseases and ailments in hunter-gatherer societies (Ristvet Ch. 2)? How do these contrast with the health of early agricultralists? Why did health deteriorate after the transition to farming? What was the role of animal domestication and infectious diseases to changes in mortality and life expectency? (Ristvet Ch. 2)
The hunter gatherer societies bared a higher risk of contacting ailments as opposed to the early agriculturalists. The diseases comprised of similar cattle diseases such as foot and mouth and mad cow .The health decorated after the transition of farming due to the reduction of consumption of wild fruits and animal products which were of more superior quality compared to the early agriculturalists. Animal domestication led to the heavy reliance of animal products which led to the substandard production of the product .The demand of the domesticated products resulted in the mortality of the animals .The animals were fed with chemicals so as to hasten their growth. This was an unnatural way of life for the animals whose life expectancy has reduced to date.
What does Jared Diamond contend is the reason that complex chiefdoms and states (and the abundance of 'cargo') did not emerge in New Guinea? (These Questions are from the DVD Guns, Germs & Steel: Out of Eden)
The New Guinea was hunters and gatherers like the rest of the ancient civilisation. Although they practised hunting and gathering which was efficient for the development for a society this was not the case. As the civilisation began to grow, they became crowded, this brought about the spread of diseases that was harmful to the progress of the community. The fact that they practice hunting and gathering which was a daily activity left them no time to concentrate on developing complex chiefdoms.
Why did agriculture spread so quickly east and west from the Fertile Crescent, rather than north to south?
Agriculture spread faster east to west due to the fact that it was suitable for their way of life. Their land was also of a fertile nature as composed to the Norh and south .This fertility led to the faster pace of the growth of the plants and did not require much attention.
What are the critical differences between the package of domesticated plants and animals available in Western Asia & Europe v. those found in New Guinea?
The domesticated plants in Western Asia and Europe were of higher quality as opposed to the those found in new Guinea .The people in new Guinea had not adopted healthy methods of rearing their animals .Most of the focus for the production of the plants was to meet their daily needs. The Western and Asian farmers on the other hand concentrated on large scale farming that required allot of supervision .This led to their investment in the practice which has improved their way of life.
Why did agriculture never begin in Australia, despite contact with Indonesians and New Guineans? What does Ristvet (Ch. 2) mean that the reason could have been 'partly ideological?
The people of New Guinea and Indonesia valued the practise of agriculture. It had to some extent become a major part of their lifestyle .This was not the case for the Australians who consider some of these ways as primitive. The Australians had European background and focused more on the development of technology as opposed to the natives of New Guinea and Indonesia who ha no other source of income.
How and why did native Californians 'manage the natural environment' rather than transition to agriculture? What were these Chumash chiefdom societies like? (Ristvet Ch. 2)
The native Californians managed to keep away form the practise of agriculture due to their practice of their unusual hunter gatherer activities that was supplemented by fishing. The Chumash had a large settlement which consisted of villages that sophisticated boats which ventured into the ocean. This led to their practice of the barter trade with their neighbour .The goods traded consisted of ornaments they acquired in the ocean such as beads, shells etc .These type of activities ensured the maintenance of their natural environment.
What did the first villages, such as Chatalhoyuk, look like? What can we infer from this about their society?
The first villages consisted of hutlike structure which were organised .The huts were build close together and were attached to some point .This shows that they were a close nit society that carried out most of their practises together. The society was one of the pioneers of the change to the Neolithic way of life.
How can we identify chiefdoms in the archaeological record? What archaeological remains
Chiefdoms can be identified by studying the way of life of the inhabitant of a particular area. In the case of the Chumash who were the earliest holders of the chiefdoms .Their lifestyle consisted of an organised way of living which required a type of government that could lead the people.
How can we identify chiefdoms in the archaeological record? What archaeological remains likely distinguish ancient chiefdoms from less stratified tribal societies?
Chiefdoms can be identified by their arrangement .A chiefdom consists of a tribal leader who is in charge of the running of its people .Chiefdoms are more elaborate as opposed to the tribal societies .The remains of the chiefdoms are larger in that the society had more occupants.
Why are food surplusses essential the development of chiefdoms? Why is trade and craft production also important? (Ristvet Ch. 3)
Food surpluses are important for the development of the chiefdoms because food is the major source of nutrition of the body which is important for the wellbeing a chiefdom .For a chiefdom to thrive its members need to be healthy so as they can continue to develop the it.
What does Jared Diamond say about early states and monumental architecture? (read Propaganda of the Pyramids on D2L).
The monumental architecture was of a very developed nature .The pyramids which were build at this time were calculated through methods that are studies in mathematics .This shows the level of experience the architects had. It also paved way for the rules of architecture that is used today.
What is the main difference between Egyptian Civiliation as an 'empire of villages' and Mesopotamia as a 'heartland of cities?' (Ristvet Ch. 3)
Egyptian civilisations are a more developed civilisation as compared to the Mesopotamia civilisation. Although the Mesopotamia civilisation was the cradle of civilisation, it cannot be compared to the level of development in which the Egyptians had archived .The Egyptians had a number of pharaohs who led their people in a very civilised manner .In Mesopotamia, their chiefdoms were not as structured .
What was a ziggurat? How is it different from a pyramid, in terms of its use?
Why was trade and exchange such an important factor in the emergence of
Mesopotamian states? Ristvet Ch. 3
The Zugurat is the Mesopotamian version of a pyramid, they were built for religious purposes and were the residents of the gods they worshiped. It was one of the pillars of the community and was responsible for some of the constructions of the Mesopotamian architecture.
Compare and contrast the different theories for origins of the state presented by Ristvet (Ch. 3): Action Theory, Warfare, Hydraulic, Metallurgy; and understand the difference between specific and multicausal theories.
Specific theories are that are singular in nature and do not have other contending theories .They are more reliable seeing as they serve as the only explanation of a specific occurrence.
Malticasualistic theories are made up of one or more theories that can either be true or false .These theories may be have different explanations for one specific topic .The are accurate and can therefore not be relied on.
Why were trade and irrigation both important in the emergence of chiefdoms in El Paraiso, Peru and among the Ubaid of Mesopotamia? (Ristvet Ch. 3)
Trade and irrigation were all important for the emergence of these chiefdoms in that irrigation is important for the development of chiefdom. The proper irrigation of a society brings forth a successful people due to the production of enough food that is able to feed the large nation.
The trader of goods and services was one of the main economic activities of these chiefdoms Trade mostly consisted of batter trade which involved the exchange of goods with other goods .This helped these societies progress to the extent of becoming successful chiefdoms.
What are the 'stepped pyramids'? How did the 'bent pyramid' get its name?
The stepped pyramids were built by Pharaoh Djoser with the intention to make it the holder of his mummified body. The stepped pyramids consists of six stepped layers which with a height of 62 metres. Build by Pharaoh Sneferu, the bent pyramids got its name from the its physical structure which comprises of a 54 degree angle which changes in measurement halfway up the pyramid to a 43 degree angle.