1. Explain the role of hormones across multiple motivation systems. Include in your answer (but do not limit to): sex differences, action patterns and implications for human applications.
Testosterone is considered to be a steroid hormone that is derived from cholesterol and released in men. Men hormones are called androgens responsible for the formation of masculine qualities. In addition to supporting basic physical development, testosterone is associated with psychology motivation. For instance, this hormone is in charge of leading behavior intended to get high status (Mazur, 1998). Testosterone is interrelated with social position and dominant conduct in different species. It goes without saying that when the social rank is not certain, a high level of the masculine hormone motivates creatures to gain higher status. People with a high level of hormone are usually more assertive and aggressive than ones with a low level. Moreover, an individual with a low level of testosterone avoids a high status. Testosterone has an impact on conduct and social environment also has an influence on testosterone.
Oxytocin is a peptide hormone produced in the brain and functions as a neurotransmitter. A research of pregnant women showed that plasma level of oxytocin during pregnancy have affects on emotions, ideas, thoughts that concern mother-infant bonding and encourage maternal care (Lim, 2013). Progesterone is a steroid hormone that is useful for the female menstrual cycle. Increased hormone during social stress might help social bonding. Cortisol is released during stressful situation. The increased cortisol means social inhibition implying disquiet and precaution (Norman, 2014). Thus, there is an interaction between cortisol and testosterone as for leadership, aggression.
2. Explain what role, if any, negative feedback and homeostasis play across motivational systems, especially eating, sexual and aggressive behaviors.
Homeostasis (efforts of a body to maintain a constant state of the blood stream) plays an important role across multiple motivation systems. Multiple motivations of behavior are eating, sexual play. Not all physiological needs are homeostatic. It should be emphasized the physiological needs act as channels for all types of other needs. For example, an individual who thinks he is hungry might long more comfort than vitamins. A person who feels a lack of anything, the motivation is likely to be the physiological needs rather than others. A human being, who needs food, security, or relationship, would seek more for meal than anything other. If he did not satisfy all the physiological needs, his other needs stop existing. A human who is extremely hungry, thinks about food, and perceives only food.
Conduct is multi-motivated. Any conduct is defined by several fundamental needs simultaneously rather than by only one. People eat not only to fill the stomach, but for comfort too. A human being makes love not only for pure sexual release, but to feel strong and seem more passionate.
Hormones prime behaviors because there is a relationship between hormones and social behavior. Hormones influence on how human beings think and feel. They affect weight, emotions, desire and evaluate or lower pain thresholds. Love appears to be the most meaningful hormonal reaction for a lot of persons. Sexual attraction and infatuation are a response of a hormone. Hormones might act for a long time.
3. Explain the following statement: Behaviors prime hormones; Hormones prime behavior. Sexual behavior primes aggression; Aggression primes sexual behaviors.
Behaviors prime hormones because hormones are manipulated and its influence on conduct is observed. These notions are interrelated. It is worth of mentioning a formation of a feedback between behavior and hormones. Not only hormones have an impact on conduct, but also behavior affects hormones.
Sexual behavior primes aggression because an individual’s androgen level and his conduct are dependent. Sex hormones affect behavior, and conduct alters levels of sex hormones (androgen, especially testosterone that is associated with aggression). Aggression is a biological conduct, not always negative, and always under the limits of the self-control. It is a small wonder that increased testosterone is hypothesized to be related to elevation in aggression. Aggression primes sexual behavior because androgens play a significant role in sexual conduct. It is said that androgens establish a biological readiness for future aggressive behavior.
Burgess, M., & Kruis, R. (2003). Testosteron. Amsterdam: Vassallucci.
Lim, P. (2013). Men's health. London: Springer.
Mazur, J. (1998). Learning and behavior (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall.
Norman, A., & Henry, H. (2014). Hormones (3rd ed.). Burlington: Elsevier Science.