Professional Engineering Development
Part A. Engineering Ethics
- Acting in an ethical manner constitutes good understanding of moral values, which is innate and varies in every person, culture and social environment. Securing the safety of the public should not depend upon the professional members’ discretionary understanding of ethics because one ethical behavior may be different in another.
- Depending on the imminent risk at hand, engineers should observe making ethical decision that are geared more towards public safety rather than taking considerations of achieving economical design. Emphasizing on economical and design efficiency alone exacerbates the likelihood of increasing safety risk.
- Deciding whether or not a member of the professional organization have committed a breach of code of ethics will require a test of ethical competence in which the deciding body will make decisions to resolve ethical breaches by means of measuring the professional’s sound knowledge, skills, diligence, care, level of specialization and personal responsibility to his actions. The code of ethics test encompasses true or false questions ranging from fulfillment of their professional duties, acts of truthful engagement, adherence to confidentiality up to acknowledgement of mistakes after consultation their clients and employers.
- Given the situation and the reason of the manager as to why the full calibration of the weighbridge cannot be done, as a laboratory supervisor and a professional engineer at that, the code of professional ethics stipulates that engineers should be guided by the highest standard or integrity and honesty. Meaning, the perceived anomaly in the weighbridge performance be addressed by accordingly as part of the professional obligation. There is evidence of deception in which the equipment is generating aggregate weight that results to overcharging. The best mitigating solution is to seek council of the higher management because the laboratory manager cannot make the same level of decision that the higher management can do particularly in terms of decisions that implies financial expenditure.
- Ethical positions in
- As an independent consulting engineer the most appropriate resolution is to uphold the rules of practice of the profession that should give higher priority to public safety and welfare. The solid waste discharge from the facility has the potential to endanger the health of the surrounding community and it encompasses breach of the engineering code of ethics. Therefore, as a consulting engineer I would recommend revising the design. Although it will incur immense financial implications because the ongoing construction will have to be stopped, it would be best to examine the existing design and propose revisions that will mitigate the possibilities of sewage overflow. Salvaging parts of the original plan would minimize the incurrences of additional cost.
- As an employee working in the design office of the council the most appropriate remedy is to have the initiative and courage to revise the design even if the council disagrees. It is important that as an employee and professional at the same time to disclose the imminent risk and potential conflicts that may arise in neglecting the problem. Following practical designs at the expense of public safety is an act of violation of the profession’s code of ethics.
Part B. Treaty of Waitangi / Engineering Interaction with Maori
- Treaty of Waitangi is considered as the founding document of New Zealand during the time of British conquest. In addition, the treaty also constitutes an agreement between the Queen of England and the chiefs of the New Zealand tribes regarding the ownership of the land. In the first article of the treaty, the formed confederation of the New Zealand Chiefs including those that have not joined the confederation will agree that the entire governance of the country will be given to her majesty the Queen of England. In the second article, the Queen in return will do everything in her power to protect the Chiefs and their sub-tribes including all the people of New Zealand. In addition, the Queen will also acknowledge the unqualified exercise of chieftainship of the tribe leaders over their villages, treasures and lands. On the other hand, if the Queen decided to purchase the land of the confederation Chiefs, the agreed price will be the one set by the owner and the purchase agent appointed by her majesty. Furthermore, the third article stipulates the agreement that the Queen in return will exercise her power to protect the ordinary citizens of the country and provide them with equal opportunities and duties similar to the people of England. There were other articles in the treaty that defines the agreement between the tribes of the confederation and the British government concerning other areas of the Maori’s cultural practices.
- The fourth article of the treaty although was not written in the actual treaty was still discussed on the signing day is about is the exercise of customary laws and freedom of religion. This became an issue during the discussion because the Catholic church, Maori religion and the Anglican church of England cannot get into agreement as which religion should be imposed in the country. However, the governor has stated that he will look after the protection of all the religions observed in New Zealand including those of the Maori. The English version of the treaty did not include the provisions about religious imposition including practice of traditional customs, tribal laws, and practically the Maori’s way of life.
- In 1831, King William IV of England received a petition sent by the Samuel Marsden requesting the king to be the guardian of the islands known to be New Zealand. The petition stipulates concerns about other countries that express interest of taking over the islands and concerns about protecting the Maori from misconducts from British people that migrated and visiting the islands. Lawlessness is apparent in the land particularly the growing proportions of enslavements and murders particularly in Pakeha. Due to trade and humanitarian interests, the British government has decided to formally intervene. In 1833, James and Agnes Busby transferred to New Zealand and set up residence at Waitangi. The Busby’s represent the British Empire and helped the Maori leaders to prepare in the transition this includes the selection of the flag in 1834 so that the ships from New Zealand can gain access to Australian ports and be protected from piracy. Foreign interests have increased in 1835 convincing Busby to collaborate with northern rangatira to draft a declaration of independence. The drafting of the declaration of independence formed the confederation of northern rangatira and 34 other in the south and in 1840, a total of 52 tribes joined the confederation and the Declaration was signed in the same year.
- Kaitiakitanga - The term refers to guardianship and conservation. It is attributed to the Maori tradition that kinship exists between humans and animals in which the connection was expressed through kaitiakitanga or a way of managing the environment.
- Taonga – is defined in the Maori culture as natural resources or objects of high value or otherwise referred to as treasure.
- WaahiTapu – The Maori culture refers to the sacred place of religious, ritual, spiritual, and tradition as Waahi Tapu. Religious practices are considered as integral part of the Maori’s culture.
- Before the passing of the Research Management Act the British Crown has conceded that the environmental management approach have failed to recognize or consider the Maori values. Concessions were made to Maori regarding the effects of drainage proposals to their waterways. The Maori Social and Economic and Advancement Act together with the Kiwi statutory board have established settlements regarding the natural resources benefits. However, the entitlements accorded in the settlements had weaker power within the district in order to manage the entire hapu and iwi resources. Therefore the Maori was consulted for the matter, but still the Crown due to limited evidence about the issue gave no strong recognition. It was only in 1970’s when the Town and Country Planning have considered including provisions that recognize the Maori’s relationship to traditions and culture regarding the use of their ancestral lands. In addition, the high court decision regarding Huakina Development Trust vs. Waikato Valley Authority upheld the spiritual and cultural values of the Maori in relationship with their waterways.
- Proposed engineering projects for which resource consent is being sought requires consultation with the local Maori people (Tangata whenus). Such meetings follow specific protocols. The local government takes consultation meetings with Maori people seriously, which includes selecting appropriate venue that gives mana or status of prestige, respect and authority to the members of the Maori council. Cultural protocols are often observed with utmost consideration to cultural traditions particularly between the senior members of the council. The purpose of this protocol is to establish relationship with the local government, project initiator and the senior Maori council. However, it is often the individual staff of the council that contributes greatly to the establishment of the effective partnership. It is often that relationship hinges on the relationships made and key individuals in which the absence of such will lead to little continuity or substance on the process. Other practices are employed in the consultation meetings such as involvement of other organization such as the Iwi/Hapu during the early stage of the development, policy planning and consent application.