1. Why and how have fathers become more involved in childbirth? Discuss the pros and cons of this involvement.
Fathers have become more involved in childbirth by staying next to their wife and providing her with encouragement, much needed support and companionship. Initially some men are embarrassed to be next to their wife but as he starts using the breathing technique that was taught in the preparatory class, he feels that he has a necessary role to play and feels at home as his wife follows his cue and breathes with him. The advantages of having the husband around are that the wife can share a very intimate moment with her husband by having him witness childbirth. Men who are present with their partner during childbirth can surely provide valuable parental support and postnatal care for the infant as well as the mother. But the disadvantage is that men who feel uncomfortable and nervous would be more of a distraction than help and as men have never undergone labour pain it may stress them out to see heir wife in pain. In many cultures a mother has women companions like her mother or sister to help her at this delicate moment and men are totally excluded. Even in America only recently have the men become a part of the childbirth experience (Santrock, 2010).
2. Define and distinguish sensation and perception. Also, explain why they make interesting problems for study by developmentalists and what practical problems their study might involve?
Sensation is the process of detecting and encoding stimulus energy in the world. Stimuli emit physical energy—light, sound, and heat, for example. The sense organs detect this energy and then transform it into a code that can be transmitted to the brain. The first step in “sensing” the world is the work of receptor cells, which respond to certain forms of energy. The retina of the eye is sensitive to light, and special cells in the ear are sensitive to sound, for example. This physical energy is transformed into electrical impulses; the information carried by these electrical impulses travels through nerve fibers that connect the sense organs with the central nervous system. Once in the brain, information about the external world travels to the appropriate area of the cerebral cortex. Perception is the brain’s process of organizing and interpreting sensory information to give it meaning. The retinas of our eyes record a fast-moving silver object in the sky, but they do not “see” a passenger jet: our eardrum vibrates in a particular way, but it does not “hear” a Beethoven symphony. Organizing and interpreting what is sensed—“seeing” and “hearing” meaningful patterns in sensory information—is perception. In our everyday lives, the two processes of sensation and perception are virtually inseparable. When the brain receives information, for example, it automatically interprets and responds to the information. Because of this, most contemporary psychologists refer to sensation and perception as a unified information-processing system (Santrock, 2010).
Both Sensation and Perception are so closely associated that it is very difficult for developmentalists to study them separately. There is almost an overlap. Sensation may remain the same throughout the world but perception differs based on culture, nature and nurture. This also makes it difficult to study them.
3. Childcare standards in Ohio and Indiana.
In Indiana, Child care centers must be licensed and this is renewed once every 2 years. The license needs to be posted. Liability insurance is not required. This license is not transferable to another person, organization, sponsor or address. New licenses must be obtained if expanding, changing age range, or increasing licensing capacity. An announced State inspection occurs prior to licensing. Unannounced inspections occur periodically at least annually. Unannounced inspections will be made after a complaint (Ceridian Corporation, 2007).
Staff: child ratios are,
Infant: one staff for up to four infants (1:4)
Toddler: one staff for up to five children (1:5)
2 years: one staff for up to five children (1:5)
3 years: one staff for up to 10 children (1:10)
4 years: one staff for up to 12 children (1:12)
5+ years: one staff for up to 15 children (1:15)
In mixed age groups, the ratio for the youngest child usually applies.
Maximum group size is:
Infant: 8 • Toddler: 10
2 years: 10
30 to 36 months: 14
No maximum group size for children 3 years and older.
However, the following are recommended: - 3 years: 20, 4 years: 24, 5+ years: 30
In any group that has an infant or toddler, the maximum age range between the oldest and youngest child is 13 months.
In Ohio Child care centers must be licensed. Provisional license issued for six months from approval date, then licensed for the balance of two years and the license must be renewed every two years. Liability insurance is not required. State inspection is required prior to licensing, during provisional period, and upon renewal. Full-time centers are inspected twice each year with at least one being unannounced. Part-time centers are inspected once each year. Inspection may be conducted after a complaint. An unannounced inspection may occur at any time (Ceridian Corporation, 2007).
Birth to 12 months: one staff for up to five children (1:5) or two staff for up to 12 children (2:12)
12 to 18 months: one staff for up to six children (1:6)
18 to 2 1/2 years: one staff for up to seven children (1:7)
2 1/2 to 3 years: one staff for up to eight children (1:8)
3 years: one staff for up to 12 children (1:12)
4 to 5 years: one staff for up to 14 children (1:14)
Kindergarten to 11 years: one staff for up to 18 children (1:18)
11 to 14 years: one staff for up to 20 children (1:20)
The center shall have at least two responsible adults available on the premises at all time when seven or more children are present. Children younger than 2½ years must be cared for in an area separate from older children. In mixed-age groups, the age of the youngest child determines the staff: child ratio of the group, except when one of the children is 2½ years or older and permanently assigned to a group, in which case the ratio for the older group applies. Ratios and group size may be doubled for no more than 1½ hours during naptime as long as the staff for the correct ratio is readily available. Cincinnati ratios and maximum group size regulations may be smaller.
Maximum group size
Must not exceed twice the maximum number of children allowed per staff member.
For infants under 12 months old, the maximum group size is 12 with at least two staff present at all times.
When there are 12 or more children present, the grouping may include children of all ages.
4. Are there situations in which you would not tell a child that he or she has a serious illness? How would you deal with the possibility of death? How would a child’s cognitive development influence his or her understanding of the illness?
Honest communication is very vital for a child to try and adjust with his/her serious illness. The child needs to know that he/she is about to receive plenty of care from hospital staff and that though it might be frightening, they are there to make the child feel better. If any procedure would be painful, it is best if the parents mention this to the child instead of lying as the child would stop trusting his/her parent if he feels they are lying. Explaining death to a child depends o the age and the maturity level. It is best to try to understand the specific fears and concerns of the sick child and try addressing them. Irrespective of their age, all children who are critically ill, need to know that they are loved and that they’d be kept as comfortable as possible. Just like us adults, a child needs to adjust to the diagnosis and this might cause emotional situations like sadness, depression, anger, fear and denial. At times professional intervention through counseling would help to a great extent (Santrock, 2010).
5. Parent-child relationship in a TV series
Gilmore Girls”, an American Comedy Drama series shows the relationship between a single mother, Lorelai Gilmore and her daughter Rory. We see Rosy’s journey through high school and college and her interaction with her mom who had her at the tender age of 16. Lorelai is a loving mom to her child and over the years they become best friends. As Rosy matures there is a visible struggle as Rory acts more mature than her mother and her mother in turn turns to her daughter for approval. Lorelai also proves to be a caring parent who does not want her daughter to make the same silly mistakes that she made. Though the mom and daughter duo share a strange relationship, the mom tries to instill traditional values in her daughter. For example, Lorelai wants her parents to help with Rory’s Private Schooling and in return, they end up having dinner with Lorelai’s parents every Friday night. This situation allows Rosy to spend time with her grandparents as well as her mom. Hence Loreai and her daughter share a very unique relationship as Lorelai is in a position to understand what her teenage daughter is undergoing as she had Rory when she herself was still a teenager. This show has shown us the wonderful relationship between a single parent and her child. They through go through rough patches but end up making up.
6. Potential risk factors associated with suicide
Potential risk factors that are associated with suicide among adolescents and teenagers are: recent or serious loss, psychiatric disorder like depression, prior suicide attempts, alcohol and substance abuse, struggling with sexual orientation, bullying, lack of social support, access to weapons, stigma associated with asking for help and cultural/religious beliefs (Kaslow, 2013).
When a child shows signs of suicide the first and foremost thing to do is to talk about your concerns calmly without accusing the child. Tell the child he/she is loved by parents and friends. Validate the child’s feelings and empathize with them. Monitor the activities of such children and do inform the parents . Ensure that the child receives professional intervention and the parents need to participate in the therapy actively along with the child.
7. Hypothetical situations in real life of coerced sexual activity
2 hypothetical situations in real life where sexual coercion takes place are: Sex on college campuses where any one partner is sexually aroused and feels the other partner would also enjoy the physical act (Santrock, 2010). Second is in night clubs where it may happen between people who have met for the first time or between strangers. The consequences would be similar to a great extent but in the second instance the victim may feel a higher level of trauma as the perpetrator was more of a stranger and hence there might be irrational fear for years to come and the victim may not be able to step into another night club.
Victims need to realize that they are not to be blamed for what happened. It is best to surround yourself with friends who can be supportive. Practice breathing exercise, listen to music, go for long walks or try meditation to take your mind off from what happened. Professional counseling would come in handy (McCoy and Oelschlager, 2009).
8. Song comparison
The two songs that I have chosen are:
Black Eyed Peas - Don't Phunk With My Heart (2005)
Big Sean - I Don't F**k With You (2014)
The 2005 song tells of a situation between a couple when one tries to end the relationship and the other is in disbelief (AzLyrics, 2015).
The 2014 song by American rapper Big Sean and sources indicate that Sean wrote the song about ex-fiancée,Glee star Naya Rivera.
Both the songs show the singer asking the partner to stop messing with them. The 2005 song sounds much more fun and less aggressive, whereas the 2014 song sounds very abusive and aggressive. In the years to come, lyrics may turn more violent as people are growing to be much more impatient as each generation proceeds.
9. Compare and contrast 2 personality development theories in middle age.
Erikson’s theory for middle age is Generativity Vs Stagnation (Self-Absorption). The major concern of the middle aged is to assist the younger generation in developing and leading useful lives—this is what Erikson means by generativity. The feeling of having done nothing to help the next generation is known as stagnation. Both these are contradictory. Generativity is positive as here the individual seeks to help the younger generation. However, stagnation is negative to an extent and accuses one of having done nothing (Santrock, 2010).
Ceridian Corporation (2007). Child Care Regulations in Ohio. Retrieved from: http://download.militaryonesource.mil/12038/MOS/Articles/Ohio_childcare.pdf
Ceridian Corporation (2007). Child Care Regulations in Indiana. Retrieved from: http://download.militaryonesource.mil/12038/MOS/Articles/Indiana_childcare.pdf
Kaslow, Nadine (2013). Teen Suicides: What Are the Risk Factors? Retrieved from: http://www.childmind.org/en/posts/articles/2013-11-5-risk-factors-teen-suicide
McCoy, Kelsey, and Oelschlager, James (2009). Sexual Coercion Awareness and Prevention. Retrieved from: https://www.fit.edu/caps/documents/SexualCoercion_000.pdf
AzLyrics Staff (2015). Black eyed peas lyrics. Retrieved from: http://www.azlyrics.com/lyrics/blackeyedpeas/dontphunkwithmyheart.html
Santrock, John (2010). Life-Span Development. McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages. New York: New York.