Q1. What types of evidence are used to explain the arrival of humans in North America?
Evidences related to human arrival in North America are the discovery of Folsomtips, thin projectile tips that proved that humans had lived and hunted on the continent far earlier, and the oldest evidence for human occupation in North America has come from the discovery of well chipped spear heads, Clovis Site in new Mexico.
Q2. In the millennium before Columbus, what evidence exists for non-local trade in North America?
Before the arrival of Columbus, there were various non local trades encored in North America. Hopewell people yielded pipestone, flint , copper, silver, mica, quartz, seashells, and shark teeth from different areas of Mississipi valley in North America. Around 700, Bows and arrows became wide spread in North America. Maize underwent a transformation to a central staple crop.
Q3. Why is the first voyage of Columbus in 1492 still viewed as such an earth-changing event?
The voyage of Columbus is a turning point in World history. People and civilizations of long separated regions began to develop connections. Moreover, it opened new world to Western civilization. Columbus expanded the knowledge of the known sea and sea trade routes.
Q4. What factors motivated and shaped Spain’s rapid intrusion into sixteenth-century America?
The factors that motivate and shaped spain’s rapid intrusion into sixteenth-century America are the Successful voyaging, New wealth prompted further investment in exploration, and Reports of surprising places and people in North America for encouraging trades.
Q5. How did Europe’s sharp religious split influence the early colonization of North America?
In the 16th century , Europe was entrenched in religious warfare by separating religious groups called catholic and protestant. Some wanted to make a society more man-centered and others wanted to make society truly religious ( puritans).
Q6. Spanish priests sought to rescue the Aztecs from the devil. How did Aztecs view the new teachings? (Note: Use Interpretive History “These Gods That We Worship Give Us Everything We Need.”pg 17)
Aztecs took this way of priesting entirely in a new and frightening way as they said that those they worship are not gods, on the contrary we have taught that these gods are the source of great riches and delights all of which belong to them. b. What methods do scholars use to gain information about prehistoric Native America? Are there advantages or disadvantages in relying on any one of these sources?
The Scholars study the Earth’s Geology in which they particularly focus on the oceanic and climate changes occurred at the end of last Ice Age to determine the existence of humans in North America, and the type of geological problems they faced living over there. Archeologists dig the earth and found ancient artifacts disclosing the lifestyle of the Native Americans; moreover, they also found the ruins of animals that are now extinct. Earth’s Geology in the past and Archeology reveals the stories of our ancestors; on the other hand, it raises many debates between the scholars.
c. Discuss the reasons why so many different tribal cultures developed in North America. Examine the existence of both small villages and major city complexes.
In North America, one can find various tribal cultures because in the past, people from the continents of Africa, Asia, and Europe migrated to North America in search of warmer climate, food, and trade. Each tribe wanted to rule North America because of the availability of abundant resources. Crops like Maize and beans and vegetables like potatoes and squash were easily cultivated in American region; this led to the trade between different continents that also exchanged the cultures, people, and microbes.
In Peru, the Inca empire constructed road system and built Stonemasons. In Mesoamerica, the Maya Empire and the Aztec built stone temples. The Anasazi Empire in the Mississippi valley laid the groundwork for mound-buildings societies and introduced new methods in agriculture and technology. On the other hand, the Mogollon resided in the mountainous regions of eastern Arizona where they built sunken pit houses and built canals along with the floodgates.
d. The powerful Aztec Empire fell into the hands of a small band of adventurers led by Cortés. What occurrences within the Aztec world made this possible?
The Spanish soldier, Hernan Cortes followed the route of Columbus and reached to the Carribbean; although Cortes’s army was of small number, but their horses and guns scared the Indians in the Aztec Empire. Cortes also spread the Smallpox virus in Aztec, where people were unknown to this disease and so, they had no immunity. The aftermath led Cortes to invade Tenochtitlan.
Use page 17 of text for the following)1)Why would the Aztec priest fear an uprising of the common people under these circumstances? How would you respond to a similar situation?
The Aztec priest feared an uprising of the common people, because if he accepted Christianity, ordered his followers to stop worshipping gods as they are not real and asked them not to follow the customs they had been following since centuries then they would have become very angry as this would be disrespectful to their elders.
2) As suggested near the end of this chapter, a similar religious confrontation was taking place in Europe in 1524, during the early years of the Protestant Reformation. Contrast and compare these two situations,
During the 1520s, the Christians were divided into Protestants and Roman Catholics. Martin Luther’s reform movement introduced hierarchy in the church and translated the Latin Bible into Modern Language; those individuals who followed Luther’s reforms were given the name Protestants and those who did not follow these reforms were called Roman Catholics. Similarly, when Cortes introduced Christianity in the Aztec Empire they refused to follow the new religion as they were attached to their old religion and customs of worshipping multiple gods and performing ceremonies and sacrifices to earn their blessings, taught by their elders.