Chemical Abstract Number: 242-646-8
Common Uses Streptozotocin
The chemical Streptozotocin (STZ) is identified to be useful for the treatment of “metastasizing pancreatic islet cell tumors, malignant carcinoid tumors, and as an
investigational drug for diabetes research” (Virginia Commonwealth University ñ Office of Environmental Health & Safety, 2009, p. 1).
A determination if your chemical is a carcinogen, reproductive toxicant and/or highly toxic chemical.
The chemical is classified as possible carcinogen and mutagen . It was clearly identified as “’reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen’ based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals (IARC, 1978, 1982)” (cited in . As a carcinogen, the chemical is found to have strong potentials for causing cancer or tumor in various parts of the body. In addition, since the chemical is included among NIOSH list of drugs categorized as hazardous confirms STZ as such.
In the report prepared by the BC Cancer Agency, the institution reported that the potential side effects to identified organ sites are summarized in the table on the next page. The organ sites that were identified included blood, bone marrow, skin, stomach, pancreas, and renal or genitourinary organ . The adverse side effects were noted to be possible through significant exposure to STZ, as described in greater detail in the following summarized format.
Source: BC Cancer Agency, 2007
A determination if chemical is a solvent, pesticide, metal, radionuclide and/or other.
The description of the chemical indicates that it is highly soluble in water, “ketones, and lower alcohols and only slightly soluble in polar organic solvents (NTP, 2005)” (cited in Virginia Commonwealth University: Office of Environmental Health & Safety, 2009, p. 1). Likewise, aside from the potential serious effects noted in terms of carcinogenicity, STZ is reported to cause occupational exposure hazards including cytotoxicity or genotoxicity, teratogenicity, and reproductive toxicity (Virginia Commonwealth University: Office of Environmental Health & Safety, 2009).
Absorption – distribution – elimination.
In terms of potential effects on humans, STZ was noted to have potential short-term irritation to the skin when accidentally contacted. The known clinical effects include the following: “adverse effects most commonly reported in clinical use include nausea, vomiting. Kidney dysfunction has been seen during clinical use. Effects on blood and blood-forming organs have also occurred” .
In addition, information regarding pharmacokinetics including data on oral absorption, metabolism, and excretion are summarized in the table below:
Source: BC Cancer Agency, 2007, p. 1
A description of biotransformation/metabolism major pathway(s) and toxic metabolites or transition molecules.
A description of metabolic effects to major pathways where STZ have been
adversely administered are noted herewith: “mild to moderate abnormalities of glucose tolerance have been noted in some patients treated with ZANOSAR (streptozocin) . These have generally been reversible, but insulin shock with hypoglycemia has been observed” . In addition, the table presented in the previous page indicated information regarding STZ “spontaneously degrades to methylcarbonium ions, extensively metalolized, likely in the liver and kidneys” .
Likewise, the data on parenteral administration of STZ which traces the chemical’s pathways are summarized in the table below:
Source: BC Cancer Agency, 2007, p. 4
Important Information about Streptozotocin
The chemical STZ is among the list of drugs categorized as hazardous with specifically categorized AHFS Pharmacologic-therapeutic classification as “10:00 Antineoplastic agents” . The chemical’s manufacturer, Cayman Chemical Company prepared a Safety Data Sheet which contains relevant information pertaining to hazards identification, information on the ingredients, first aid measures, firefighting measures, accidental release measures, handling and storage, and engineering controls and use of personal protection, among others. From the report, the data that is required to inform individuals or workers who could be potentially exposed to the chemical are available in the most comprehensible manner.
Likewise, the common trade name for the chemical is ZANOSAR® . Another relevant information that was revealed indicates that “primary routes of occupational exposure to STZ include: inhalation, ingestion, accidental
injection, and dermal absorption” . From the data on parenteral administration of STZ, it could be deduced that accidental injection could occur due to lack of appropriate knowledge and information on the proper administration for STZ. As noted, both subcutaneous and intramuscular routes of injection are not at all advisable or possible due to the corrosive nature of STZ.
Material Name: Streptozocin Sterile Powder Material Safety Data. (2007, January 5). Retrieved December 14, 2014, from Pfizer: http://www.pfizer.com/files/products/material_safety_data/ZANOSAR.pdf
BC Cancer Agency. (2007, October 1). DRUG NAME: Streptozocin. Retrieved December 13, 2014, from bccancer.bc.ca: http://www.bccancer.bc.ca/NR/rdonlyres/E4FD2149-8B76-4938-B750-D892265231E5/25282/Streptozocinmonograph_1Oct07.pdf
Cayman Chemical Company. (2013, April 16). Safety Data Sheet: Streptozocin. Retrieved December 13, 2014, from caymanchem.com: https://www.caymanchem.com/msdss/13104m.pdf
DHHS. (2012). NIOSH List of Antineoplastic and Other Hazardous Drugs in Healthcare Settings. Retrieved December 13, 2014, from cdc.gov: http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2012-150/pdfs/2012-150.pdf
IARC. (1978). Some N-Nitroso Compounds. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk, Vol. 17, 365.
IARC. (1982). Some N-Nitroso Compounds. Chemicals, Industrial Processes and Industries Associated with Cancer in Humans. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans, Supplement 4., 292.
National Toxicology Program. (2005). Streptozotocin CAS No. 18883-66-4. . National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences.
RxList, Inc. (2014). Zanosar: Side Effects. Retrieved December 15, 2014, from rxlist.com: http://www.rxlist.com/script/main/mobileart-rx.asp?drug=zanosar&monotype=rx-ad&monopage=4
Virginia Commonwealth University: Office of Environmental Health & Safety. (2009, November 11). Streptozotocin: Safe Working Practices Information Page. Retrieved December 13, 2014, from oehs.vcu.edu: http://oehs.vcu.edu/chemical/biosafe/STZinfo.pdf