The Wesley Assembly Government together with complimented experts has a mandate to provide a nuclear energy in United Kingdom. The governments also trust on the view of the public interest on the utilization of the nuclear power, therefore they need to take active steps to open up and continue in infrastructural construction of the nuclear power stations, this will help to meet the fuel cost in the country and upgrade the living standards of the citizens.
This paper provides briefing on nuclear energy in UK, the Government policy, the value of the current nuclear energy and its future utilization, the complexities associated with nuclear energy and the future technology requirements(Royal academy 2011 pg400)..
Nuclear energy in United Kingdom, as in many states, is viewed as one of one of the most strategic solutions to the global demand of energy. It is also regarded as a critical factor in elevating the living standards and reducing the deforestation menace depleting the world forest in search of energy.
One of the greatest impacts of the UK nuclear energy has been the dramatic evolution on the infrastructural capacity needed to attain the adequate, effective and support environment to fully extract the energy source and utilize it fully in accordance to the international regulatory and legal framework for energy (Eurostat 2011, pg 450).
The legal and regulation framework, the public perceptions and opinions fully justify and Millennium Development Goals and the prompt utilization of this energy source, this will ensure the achievement of Millennium Development Goals and National Economic Recovery (ERS) of the UK (Royal academy 2011 pg400).
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The extraction of the nuclear energy in UK over the past years is an important landmark to achieve the global constant energy requirement; the initiative has provided various opportunities for the UK economic growth. Given the renewed taskforce and demand the resource requires a great source of infrastructure. Significant efforts are also made by majority of the world states to eradicate the constant global warming a call that requires to be emulated by the United Kingdom in their pursuit of the resource. The government trusts in the public interest on the discovery of new energy sources to meet their increasing demographic trends also calls for attention(Eurostat 2011,pg 350).
Variant set of hypothesis to tentatively provide the overview of expected results of the study. The economic level of the country has accelerated because of the increased utilization of the Nuclear energy in United Kingdom. The climate change has negatively degraded because of the emission of the gases resulting into greenhouse impact by industry.
1.4 Research Objectives
The main mandate of this study is to determine the present state of nuclear energy in UK and its future value and utilization, what is the current and future technological requirements of this energy source, to determine the economic implications of the energy and to determine the relationship of the UK extraction to the climate change and the millennium goal of development (Eurostat 2011,pg 45).
2.0 Literature Review
Following the UK government pursuit to meet the public welfare demand and to determine the future of the nuclear power, the United Kingdom government requires a great state of analysis on the range of cost and benefits associated with investment in the nuclear energy system. It would noble for the government to determine the implications in order to build investor confidence in the energy source. To strengthen the obligation of Millennium Development Goals and reduce the global warming by reducing the energy waste and increasing the renewable resource, this call for a clear planning for prompt demonstration and installation of these projects (Royal academy 2011 pg400).
In order to maintain sustainable economic development and energy capacity balance, anew replacement for the retired existing plants through prompt investment analysis is necessary. In this regard a clear forecast on the investment analysis have indicated the variation on the market data and averaged it to about 30 Euros /Mwz, this is expected to reduce the taxpayer’s budget and elevate their living standards. There is uncertainty regarding the future nuclear power generation as earlier indicated by the capitalized cost and the levelised cost(Energy Roadmap)
In the year 2006, the Government highlighted its role and challenges it faces in addressing the climate change and set out actions to meet the domestic and international obligations on energy utilization. To meet this, the UK government has placed itself in cutting down the carbon iv dioxide emission, the greatest contributor of the global warming and to adhere with the regulations principles set by the energy regulation office. This in conjunction with the regulation of the radioactive wastes emitted by these sites in accordance to environmental agency regulations has been the backdrop of the government analysis since the discovery of this source of energy. In 2009 the Euratom safety directive provided an enforceable law of high standard uniform safety framework to protect the great public and workers against the ionizing radiation from this emissions, a great achievement which was to be adopted in the year 2011 (Eurostat,2011.pg 467).
Current nuclear developments shows a greater variation in the technological level with most reactors as thermal fusion where very fast moving neutrons are fully released in the process to sustain the chain reaction. This calls for very technical adjustments and constant research and commercial developments in order for the government to include the energy resource in the development capacities.
3.0 Research Methodology
Various methodologies, procedures and modalities will be used to identify and determine the relevant data regarding this case, concrete analysis will be provided to show the validity and reliability of these cases. The area of study will only be nuclear energy extraction concentrated areas in the United Kingdom (Royal academy 2011 pg400).
3.1 The Research Design
The study will mainly utilize the ex-post facto to fully operate in the independent variables whose manifestations had occurred and cannot be altered. The design will also allow the investigation of the subsequent relationships between variables possible, and this will enable the researcher to validate a coherent after the fact analysis to an outcome (Mackay 2009 pg 433 ).
3.2 Study Area, Population and Sampling technique
The study populations will majorly government officials and their institutions, general public and the workers operating in these nuclear production zones. This population tends to clearly have an overview of the activities operating in these zones. The population will be selected on the probability basis of gender, number of years experienced in the industry and academic level on the knowledge of the nuclear energy (Mackay, 2009 pg 422). This will provide equal chances of being selected in the study. The sampling collection will be cross sectional sampling as this will provide the respondents with the best strata based system. Out of 100% of the population only 30% will be selected for the study as it large enough to represent the salient characteristic of the study population.
3.3 Data Collection Instruments
The data collection instruments will involve a collection open and close ended questionnaire, on one interviews and use of secondary sources such as books and research journals. These collection strategies will promote triangulation a phenomenon which involves the utilization of different methodologies in the same study. Therefore it becomes ideal in controlling variables.
3.4 Reliability of the Instruments
The study instruments will be considered reliable if they compos a reliability coefficient of about 0.50 and above. In order to test the reliability of the instrument, the (test-retest) method will be applied. A quite considerate pilot system will be utilized to enable the modification of the instrument. A reliability coefficient will be calculated using Karl Pearson’s product moment coefficient of correlation of 0.7 and values above one will be considered reliable and stable for the study.
3.5 Data Analysis Procedures
The data collected for this purpose will undergo full scrutiny and coding for the purpose of accuracy and completeness of the information at the end of the data collection and storage. Excels spread sheet will be used to for data capturing and storage (DECC, 2010. Pg15). The data collected re-coded and entered into a computer using the statistical packaging for socials sciences (SPSS). Descriptive statistical will be calculated and summarized for presenting and analyzing the data. The data will then summarize patterns in response from the sample by use of frequency, perceptions and pie-charts.
The following results were tabulated from various aspects of the study after every year.
The climatic implications of the nuclear energy in UK
The economic implications of the Nuclear Energy production in UK
The regulation act convened in the year 2009 had a greater implication in the nuclear production in UK. The lowest cost of the gases emitted in the atmosphere is recorded in the year 2011 after prompt adherence to the Uratom regulations sanctions on these sites. The argument shows that the future emission may have to reduce as regulation strengthens.
The stem part of the economic progression shows a relatively low level of the economic progress of the country before 2011 because of the high cost of designing and mantling these industries and then it depreciates after clear planning to the standards of the UK.
The UK Government requires articulating the statutory nuclear regulation policy modeled in 20111 on climate change which provides for the long-term framework on energy mix to sustain the economic development, emission reduction and energy security and to oversee a long term roadmap progress of the country.
DECC (2010): ‘UK Energy in Brief 2010’ A National Statistics Publication, DECC: London pg 10-30 http://www.decc.gov.uk/assets/decc/statistics/publications/brief/190-uk-energy-in-brief-2010.pdf
Mackay, D ‘Sustainable Energy – without the hot air’ UIT: Cambridge, UK 2009 pg 403-500 http://www.withouthotair.com/
Royal Academy of Engineering (2004): ‘The Cost of Generating Electricity’ Study by PB Power. The Royal Academy of Engineering: London pg 36-68 http://www.raeng.org.uk/news/publications/list/report
Renewable Energy Foundation (2011): ‘Energy Policy and Consumer Hardship’ Renewable Energy Foundation: London pg 1- 545 http://www.ref.org.uk/attachments/article/243/REF%20on%20Fuel%20
Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology (2006): ‘Carbon Footprint of Electricity Generation’ POST: London http://www.parliament.uk/documents/post/postpn268.pdf
United Nations Framework Conventions on Climate Change: Durban Climate Change Conference – November/December 2011. http://unfccc.int/meetings/durban_nov_2011/meeting/6245.php
European Commission: ‘European Energy 2020 strategy’ http://ec.europa.eu/energy/energy2020/index_en.htm
European Commission: ‘Energy Roadmap 2050’ pg 340-700 http://ec.europa.eu/energy/energy2020/roadmap/index_en.htm
Data from ‘Energy, transport and environment indicators’ Eurostat (European Commission), 2011 Edition –(http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/product_details/publication?
European Environment Agency – greenhouse gas data viewer (http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/data-viewers/greenhouse-gases-viewer)
Committee on Climate Change (2011): ‘The Renewable Energy Review’ Committee on Climate Change: London http://www.theccc.org.uk/reports/renewable-energy-