According to Madison, a 'faction' is a number of citizens, who could be in majority or minority of the whole population who are united by a common passion, interests as disseminated by the authority over the rights of other citizens or to the summation of interests of the larger community.
The two methods of curing the mischief of faction are through controlling its effects of removing its causes. On the other hand, the methods of removing causes of 'faction' are; through the destruction of the liberty of which the faction exists and by giving every citizen the same passions, interests, and opinions.
Madison argues that 'factions' are built on liberty and as liberty cannot be abolished then it is virtually and practically impossible to eliminate factions from within the society.
Pure democracy is built on diversity of interests and faculties of men which degenerates into conflicts since the ordinary and necessary operations of the government lie on the spirit of party and factions, these conflicts will always be regarded as a mischief against the other factions not party to the ruling party. Madison does not rule out the ideology of majority rule but rather outlines that inclusivity though hard to attain is necessary to optimal levels to safeguard the government in power against the mischief from factions.
Enlightened leaders cannot resolve the causes of factions and their resolution of the problems of factions is through controlling the effects of factions. Individuals will always judge in their cause or cause that favor their interests. On the other hand, groups of people, say, parties will support the cause that favors their interests. Therefore, it is the role of leadership to mediate between interests of persons in the most beneficial manner.
The republic has its delegation of government to a small number of people who are elected by the rest while also having capability to extend to a larger number of citizens and a greater sphere which lacks in a democracy. In a larger republic the ability of a faction to degenerate to a more stable party than the faction in power is minimal but the small republic has a smaller population of which a faction can outweigh the government in strength and numbers thus becoming difficult to control.
In Madison’s view, the majority rule is effective since it affords the electorate to make a choice of representation to people who they perceive as holding similar interests with them and who can make decision that will benefit them. Madison believes that this form of representation is the bets for the citizens since, in a larger sphere such as at government level, it is would be very complicated for the masses to make enlightened choices. Madison believes that the republican government is very suitable since it affords representation of both the majority and the minority while also limiting the power of factions which may not necessarily mean well for the citizens from a larger perspective.
The political problems facing the United States have their roots in the factions that exist within the society. The society has gradually evolved into small, numerous and unique identity groups or factions, driven by their interests, devoid of other people’s interests. These divisions are polarizing the country and subsequently leadership along the factional lines. There are different factions in the US political system that range from economic, social, racial, religious to political. Believably, there are some factions that have more power than others, because different factions are unequally endowed with resources and membership. Perhaps this may explain why the elite class has more influence on policies in the US.