This paper is able to explain various effects of climate change affect food security and how this affects water. These factors include temperatures, carbon dioxide.
Paragraph 1. Effects of increase in temperature to rainfall.
Paragraph 2. Effects of temperature change on plant growth pattern.
Paragraph3. Effects of carbon dioxide on temperature
Paragraph 4. Effects of carbon dioxide change on weeds.
Paragraph 5. Effects of change in heat on animal production.
Paragraph 6. Effects of temperature on livestock yield.
Paragraph 7. Effects of climate change on fish.
Paragraph 8. Effects of temperature on sea weed.
This essay is meant to discuss the effects of climate change of food security and how water thus affects food security.
Water is a most essential element in our daily lives. Water is used for production of energy, recreation, manufacturing and the most important in agriculture for the production of food. There is huge depend of water globally. Climate change has however affected the hydrological cycle, leading to the increase of water demand as a result of shrinking of water supplies. This demand has led to various management to come up with various ways to try curbing the increasing demand and countering the climate change. Climate change thus increases water demand limiting crop productivity and reduction of water availability. The climate change leads to reduction in water runoffs and some regions, which already were stressed, and have their aquifers recharged. People living near delta region would have problems with their water supply in that, the deltas would experience drop in water and increase in their salinity (Beddington et al., 2012).
Water is an important element in agriculture. Climate change has affected the hydrological cycle in that; there has been increase in temperature. This increase in temperature has led to an escalation in evaporation rate from the land and the sea. This has led to the increase of rainfall in the tropics and higher latitudes whereas the semi arid regions and the mid latitude regions experiencing decreased rainfall .The areas that do experience this rainfall however would tend to report increased cases of floods. These floods are found in areas that are always relied for the production of food. When floods do occur there is massive destruction of crops leading to drought. The semi arid regions thus would get drier with the increase in temperatures. This would then increase the demand of food in these areas. Regions that would manage to produce little food would end up producing none (Beddington et al., 2012).
Increased temperatures would have adverse effect on the growing patterns of the plants and thus increase the rate of growth in plants. This temperature increases the rate of photosynthesis in plants. The increase in yield would always depend on the optimal temperature of the plant. If the optimal temperature of the plant is exceeded, the plants yield would therefore be reduced. The northern temperate zones would experience slower growth rate with the increase in temperature while the other zones would experience the fast growth in plants because there is increase in the rate of evapotranspiration. Evapotranspiration is the rate of water loses in plants. High temperatures would lead to the fast lose of water to the atmosphere and this losing of water should be less than the plants intake of water for it to survive. This increase in the rate of growth in plants would lead to the plants being harvested early. This would increase the production of food. However, the fast increase in the growth of these plants especially the grain seeds would have reduced yield of this grain leading to the scarcity of food. The decrease in the rate of growth rate of plants meant that plants would take a longer period to grow and this would then mean the delay in the obtaining of the food from these crops (PNAS, 2013).
Globalization has led to the increased production of carbon dioxide emission to the atmosphere. This increase in the levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide has significantly led to the global warming which is the increases the earth’s temperatures. This carbon dioxide has affected yields in plants. Doubling of concentrations of carbon dioxide has had an increased production of serials as in the examples of wheat and soya beans by 30% while others like corn have 10% increased growth. Despite this fact, other conditions may act as limiting factors to achieving this growth. This may include temperatures, rainfall and nutrients. This could mean that if there were increased concentrations of carbon dioxide and the temperature exceeded the optimal temperature of the plant, the plant would have reduced yields. This could then not be able to meet the demands for food for the rapidly growing population.
The increased levels of carbon dioxide and temperature favored the growth of weeds. Weeds are the major cause of lose of crops to farmers. They would spend a lot of money buying pesticides and herbicides trying to eradicate these weeds. This process would have health effects to human beings. The increase of weeds seemed to be moving northwards in the United States. This has devastating effects to the farmers who have the little experience in the countering of these weeds. The attack by weeds would hence lead to food scarcity (PNAS, 2013).
The Americans are reported to consume over 37 million tones of meat annually. Climate change has a direct and indirect effect on animals. The increase in the heat wave would threaten the lives of animals. There have been reported cases of over 5000 animals killed in the United States by a single heat wave. This heat wave would therefore reduce the production of milk by the dairy cows and reduced their fertility. Heat stress would also lead to increased to vulnerability to diseases. These diseases could cause massive loss of animals leading to reduced food production (UNDESA, 2005).
Increased temperatures would cause droughts in various parts of the world. These droughts would cause the decrease in livestock yields. The yields produced could be of low quality due to insufficient rainfall in these areas. This temperature would result in some areas having prolonged dry spells and reduction of the rainfall. The changes in climate would increase the level of parasites attacking the animals. The early onset of seasons would enable the survival of other parasites since the changes could favor their cycles. The increased rainfall and temperatures could favor these cycles. These parasites would then cause diseases to animals killing them and their death would result in the scarcity of food. The increased levels of carbon dioxide would lead to the increased growth rate for these forages. However, research showed that the effect of carbon dioxide on this forages lowered the quality of this forages hence animals would need to consume lot of this forages to get the required amount of nutrients. This however would be difficult in areas experiencing low rainfall leading to decreased production of animal products and in certain instances to the death of the animals (UNDESA, 2005).
The American fisheries harvested millions of metric tones annually. This fishing contributed to the most part of the United States economy. Climate change has however been reported to cause stress to this fish which were already under stress because of over fishing. Fish have been reported to prefer certain temperatures for their reproduction and survival. Example of this fish is the cod fish in the north Atlantic which do not reproduce in temperatures above 47F.increase in temperature would therefore make this fish to be an endangered species and the end getting extinct. The change in temperatures would make the fish to migrate to zones that might favor their growth. This migration would enhance the competition to this fish from the already existing fish species in those areas. The limited food and oxygen would lead to the death of most of the fish. Their deaths would have devastating effects on the fishing since there will be less fish. This would affect the people who did rely on fish for food (UNDESA, 2005).
The rise in temperature increased the warmth of the seawater and did cause the rise in the water level. This warmth of the seawater favored the existences of certain diseases in water that could kill the fish. This can be seen as in the case of New England where there was the decline of the capture of lobsters due to the availability of certain bacteria that did existed in the warm water that attacked the shells of these lobsters causing their massive deaths. This temperatures and the change in seasons could also affect the migration and their reproductive cycle. This could be possible because, reproductive cycle is mostly affected by change in the season and temperatures. This can be seen in the example of salmon where warmth affected it is lifecycle and increased chances of disease. These changes would therefore affect the population of this fish having a negative impact on food production. Ocean warming could increase the acidity of the sea brought about by the increase in the carbon dioxide levels in the sea making the environment unfavorable for the fish species (UNDESA, 2005).
Climate change has thus affected the production of food globally. Various organizations have however came up with various ways to try curb the climate change. People should thus device ways to control the climate change preventing the decrease of food rather take it to the advantage to increase the production of food that do curb the fast growing population.
UNDESA. (2005). Water and food security. Retrieved from: http://www.un.org/waterforlifedecade/food_security.shtml
PNAS. (2013). Global food security under climate change. Retrieved from: http://www.pnas.org/content/104/50/19703.short
Beddington J.R., Asaduzzaman, M., Clark ME, Fernández Bremauntz A, Guillou MD, Jahn MM, Lin E, Mamo T, Negra C, Nobre CA, Scholes RJ, Sharma R, Van Bo N, Wakhungu J.( 2012). The role for scientists in tackling food insecurity and climate change. Agriculture and Food Security, 1:10 DOI:10.1186/2048-7010-1-10