I chose these two similar articles because their topic revolves around the oppression of the African-Americans due to their skin color. The authors have written about how this vice has been the most difficult and challenging to eliminate in the United States. The article will be about racism and how it has hindered development in the west. Racism has been one of the most challenging evils faced by human kind. The racial difference among human beings is the reason for dominance among religions or certain ethnic groups. It denotes oppression, atrocities, and prejudice against the dominated group which were the blacks also known as African-Americans. Their color skin brought this about where whites were perceived to be more superior to the blacks. In the United States, racism has continued to undermine the economic development of the nation.
The subject matter of both authors revolves around importance of race to both the democrats and republicans. The Jim Crow laws became a series of national and state laws enacted in the United States, which segregated use of public facilities for the blacks and the whites. Kwando article is about desegregation of the city bus line while politically and economically empowering the blacks. In 1954, Kwando article states that a decision rendered in Brown V. Board of Education, Topeka, Ks., that permitted an equal access to educational background regardless of one’s racial background. The two authors have clearly indicated that the rights of blacks were taken into consideration. By 1896, Plessey v. Ferguson doctrine 14th amendment intended to make African-Americans equal. Jim Crow argues explicitly that America’s stake has been because of high imperialism. Governor Thurmond became a champion of social order in the south where the white southerners were bestowed societal rewards. The separation of blacks from the whites brought about a number of educational, economic, and social disadvantages.
Specific area of American History from 1877 to the present that these articles cover
In the 1950’s the African-American structure realized that it was capable of providing some of the crucial resources by negotiating a directed action whenever opportunity and social conditions presented themselves. Such an opportunity presented itself in 1955 and a social movement was created whose main objective was racial equality. The blacks called for economic boycott and mass protest. The black community had already decided that they were going not going to tolerate embarrassments any more through second-class treatment on the city buses by the white community. In 1956 December 20, blacks were arrested, beaten, they lost jobs due to the boycott that they had planned. Business losses for the white merchants were very high and white families lost black house cleaners. This forced white homemakers to support the boycott so that they could protect their own personal interests. In December 1956, the boycott accomplished what the African-Americans wanted. They could now sit wherever they wished in the city buses. The white southern have encountered numerous problems after the end of slavery. With their supremacy challenged, they threatened the blacks who were now exercising their newfound rights. The democrats even tried to have dominance over the blacks in public facilities and spaces. The blacks were finally allowed to attend schools that only the whites were allowed to attend.
Topics of the articles from a specific period of American History and its importance
The topic from Kwando’s articles date back from the 19th century while Darden’s topic is about the later years from early 90s to date. This is important because it shows how the African-Americans have been able to fight battles of racism. Although everything that the blacks wanted has not yet been accomplished, some of the issues such as equal employment opportunities, access to medical health, quality education system and transport system have been integrated to be used by blacks and whites without discrimination. The history is important because it discusses the ethnic groups in US. Their history dates back when they were slaves and prisoners of war to the whites. This has brought about the celebration of Black History month in the United States. After the World War II, the blacks believe that they have earned equal rights to be treated as equal and full citizens because of their sacrifices and military services to the white southerners. The civil rights movement has gained momentum and now uses the federal courts to challenge any form of discrimination especially by the white dominated states.
Similarities and differences in the author's individual approaches to their topics
The similarities according to the author’s individual approaches to their topics is after a long time of trial and error the effectiveness for desegregation is debatable especially in the areas of housing, employment and public school education. Six decades later, it was noted that education would be the most effective way of educating the advantages between generations. The employment market has become increasingly unforgiving, and depends on a good educational credential that is only affordable to the rich. Both authors also talk about civil rights movement for the blacks to stop the white people from segregating them. The differences of the authors approach to the topic, is that they have used different case studies. Kwando uses Brown v. Board of education, which permits an equal opportunity to quality education background regardless of an individual’s racial background. Darden uses the legacy of Jim Crow to discuss imperialism and decolonization of African-American society.
Controversial subjects covered in these articles and their interpretations
The controversial statement that appeared on Kwando’s article was what if both the poor and the rich man found themselves sleeping on the streets, would they still be equal? In the 19th century, a French philosopher and writer commented that the law forbids the rich or poor to sleep on the streets and steal bread. The response to the question posed by the philosopher was that even if the rich man slept under the bridge they would still not be equal. This is because social variations have an impact on an individual ability to function, but the racial and ethnic classification alleviates them from this discrimination. Kwando-criminologist Robert Merton asserted that the American social system had contradictions that placed a strain on society when it came to racial matters. For individuals employed in Montgomery, blacks were in high concentration in the unskilled category where they constituted of 70.2 percent while white males constituted of 18.5 percent. Darden talks about a total separation of the races through a colonial social order. According to Jim Crow, the civil rights Act stipulated that everyone was to receive equal treatment regardless of the race, skin color, or previous servitude conditions in transportation, recreational places, and public accommodations. The Act was not successful especially on private corporations or persons because the laws stipulated that the African-Americans could not run businesses or buy homesteads in certain white southern states. The supreme law outlawed the private discrimination, which barred the black community from buying homes. The Supreme Court was however not able to implement fully private discrimination since it was reasoned that the private parties did not commit any crime by selecting whom they would sell their property to. The southern democrats ensured that the congress could not pass civil rights law by making sure voting by the white southerners was solid. The constitution interpretation continues to be controversial, as rights of the black community have continued to be protected by the Supreme Court.
Conclusions about the individual articles and which author's interpretation is the most compelling and why
The American constitution enforced a law where the state was not allowed to deprive any person of property, life, due process of law and protection. In most of today’s interaction between the white and the blacks, it was not affected by what was viewed as legal wars. Whites referred to NACCP as outside agitators while the blacks received the organization with respect because they knew it was their savior in racial discrimination. African-Americans realized they are actively involved in the growth of economy of the United States and decided to fight for their rights. Kwando’s article is more compelling because it discussed the rights of the African-Americans without reservations unlike Jim Crow’s article, which still had reservations for the whites. Even though racism has not yet been eliminated in the world, they have been able to pull down the walls of segregation such as sitting anywhere one pleases in the city bus, and equal sharing of public facilities regardless of skin color or race, and equal employment.
Kinshasa, Kwando M., “An Appraisal of Brown vs. Board of Education, Topeka KS. (1954) and
the Montgomery Bus Boycott,” Western Journal of Black Studies, Winter 2006, volume 30, pp. 16-23
Darden, Gary Helm, “The New Empire in the ‘New South:’ Jim Crow in the Global Frontier of
High Imperialism and Decolonization,” Southern Quarterly, Spring 2009, volume 46, pp. 8-25