The major assumptions of crime causation from the sociological perspective are explained through social processes theories, social structures, rational theory and the social conflict theory. These assumptions are relative to affirming the cultural norms, promoting social unity, clarifying moral boundaries and encouraging social change. A good person who could do no wrong becomes bad eventually when he socializes with criminals. The sociological theorizing is based on the premise that the society affects criminal behaviors. Through the peer pressure or by law enforcement controlling criminal like conditions, society’s role in crime causation is among the major factors in establishing the origins of crime. Although there is an assumption that bad people are born bad, every criminal has a story on how he or she became criminal. Their excuse ranges from craving the attention of their non-committal parents to the need to be accepted or identified with a group (Siegel, 247). Whatever that brings an individual into crime, sociological theorizing determines that a person’s environment somehow plays a role in the gradual development of a criminal mind. An example is how children acts out in response to certain behaviors. When a children are spanked in public, they may be embarrassed and may attempt to hit back in retaliation. Their chronic retaliations may soon become a habit that will make them hit not only their parents but also any other person who makes them feel embarrassed. A different perspective of theorizing focuses on assumptions that society place on particular individuals. A person who maintains a suspicious appearance could walk into the store and be monitored for the whole duration of his or her visit but a well dressed person may go on about his or her business in the same store without even being watched at all. Social structures are the distinctive and stable arrangement of institutions where people in a society interact and exist in harmony. They are patterned social relations that have repetitive and regular aspect of interactions among the members of a given social entity. The social structure of a small group is closely related to the routine activities of its members, compared to the structure of a wide community. Policy is an ethical guide on how to act in regard to challenges by the authorities in a way adhering to customs and laws. Public policy implication of criminology theories is that legislatures could increase the punishments and sentence for crimes in as a preventive measure that would minimize crime and consequently reduce the criminal behavior. On other theories like trait, rational choice and social structure; the policy implication can be civic education on how to make legal decisions in order to alleviate criminology at the developmental stage. Society is made up of organizations and structures that move and modifies their shared influence. The aftermath of the competition, cooperation, conflict and accommodation in characterizing by a unified social system that acts as a control for the behavior within these organizations in society. Subcultures are social groups that subsists within the mainstream culture that has interest and values at variance with their conventional culture. The subcultures inconsistency may be the fashion, social networks, generation, music or perceptions on certain issues. Their inconsistent values form when the wider cultures fail to recognize or meet the subculture needs.
Siegel, Larry. Criminology: the core. Cengage Learning, 2014.