1. Explain the differences between communicable and noncommunicable diseases.
Communicable diseases are those diseases that are infectious and are caused by a virus or bacteria. They are can be spread either directly or through a vector such as a mosquito. Examples of communicable diseases are colds, meningitis and strep throat. Non-communicable diseases are those diseases that are not passed on from one person to another. One does not catch a non-communicable disease even if one is exposed to a person affected by the disease. The four main types of non-communicable diseases are cardiovascular diseases, cancers, chronic respiratory diseases and diabetes. Non-communicable diseases are the leading causes of death.2. Explain the difference between isolation and quarantine.
The Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) defines isolation as “applies to persons who are known to be ill with a contagious disease” and quarantine as “those who have been exposed to a contagious disease but who may or may not become ill” (2014, par 5). Persons who are isolated are separated from other people. Both quarantine and isolation are undertaken to prevent the spread of an infectious disease.3. Explain the difference between acute and chronic diseases, and provide at least two examples of each.
An acute illness is usually confined to one body area and it responds to treatment. An acute disease is severe, occurs suddenly and it lasts for a short period only, around three months. On the other hand, a chronic disease is a long-term condition which requires more care. A chronic disease occurs gradually and is a slow progressive disease. Examples of acute diseases are myocardial infarction and appendicitis. Examples of chronic diseases are diabetes mellitus and tuberculosis.
4. Describe and provide at least two examples of direct transmission of communicable diseases.
An example of a communicable disease that can be directly transmitted is the hand-foot-mouth disease. This can be directly transmitted through direct contact with the mucous or stool of an infected person. Another example is the strep throat. This communicable disease can be transmitted through direct contact with the oral secretions of an infected person, like using the same drinking glass.5. Identify each “link” in the chain of infection and explain their relationship.
The links in the chain of infection are the infectious agent or pathogen, reservoir or host, portal of exit from the reservoir, mode of transmission, portal of entry and the susceptible host. In order for an infection to occur, each link must be present and in sequential order. The agent is that entity which is responsible for the disease. The reservoir is the place where the agent will live, grow and multiply. The portal of exit is the path the agent will take to leave the reservoir. The mode of transmission is the way in which the agent will be transmitted from the reservoir to the susceptible host. The portal of entry is the manner the agent will enter the susceptible host. The susceptible host is the person who may get the disease.6. Explain the multicausation disease model.
Multicausation disease model is a model which shows that a disease may be caused by various factors. Some of these factors include genetics, lifestyle choices and beliefs, environmental conditions, social circumstances and the quality and accessibility of medical care. An analysis of a heart disease is an example of a multicausation disease model because it can be due to the age of a person, one’s lifestyle, which can be characterized by smoking, drinking and absence of exercise, or one has a family history of heart disease. In the multicausation disease model, it can be noted that some risk factors may be modifiable such as refraining from smoking and non-modifiable factor like having a family history of heart problems.
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