An organism whose genome has been contrived in the laboratory in order to favor the expression the production a desired biologically products is known as Genetically Modified Organism (GMO). In crop farming, livestock production and pet breeding, it has long been practiced to breed selected individuals of species in order to produce offspring’s that have desirable characters (F. J, 2012). This kind of production is through the use of scientific methods including recombinant DNA technology and reproductive duplicating. In generative cloning method a nucleus is removed from a cell of the individual to be cloned and inserted into the enucleated cytoplasm of a host egg resulting into a production of an offspring genetically identical to the donor (Ammann, K. 2011).
The most frequently mentioned examples of genetically modified organisms are the agricultural plants. Some advantages of the agricultural genetic engineering include; increased crop production, costs of food and drug production have been reduced, reduced need for pesticides, food quality and nutrient composition have been enhanced, resistance to diseases and pests, food insecurity has been greatly reduced as well as medical reimbursements to the worlds cumulating population. To confirm this, the damage from pests has been confirmed reduced scientifically, increasing drought resistance and increase in the amount of production from each plant. The manufacture of bio plastic and ornamental products are among other applications (E. S. 2013). Most animals have also been genetically brought about to intensify yield hence decreasing susceptibility to disease, it is evident that this has made it easier to rare the domestic animals apart from ensuring food security to human due to large production. . For example, cattle have been improved to exhibit resistance to mad cow disease which was previously a great threat to its existence. Moreover, improvements have also been made in developing crops that have faster maturity and levels tolerating aluminum, salt, boron, drought among other environmental stressors letting plants to grow in conditions where they might not flourish.
The human microbiome study has revealed that every person differ unusually in the microbes that occupy their habitats like the gut and skin (Kamle, S., & Li, D 2016). Much of this variety is unexplained, although environment, host genetics, diet and early microbial exposure have all been associated. To characterize the ecology of human in association with microbial communities, the project of human microbiome has examined the largest unit and set of difference, clinically relevant body habitats so far. The potential properties of gene transfer on human health are an essential item in the safety assessment of genetically improved organisms (Parul, G. 2011).
Currently, the emphasis of the valuation of potential transmission from GMOs is on the fighting of antibiotic maker genes. In a more universal sense, the resistance of antibiotic among microbial human pathogens is proving to be a prioritized issue in research and healthcare (Krimsky, S. (2015)). For the development of antibiotic fighting pathogens, the horizontal genetic factor transfer of antibiotic resistance ones between microorganisms has been vital. In current biotechnology, some antibiotic resistance maker genes are used for the fruitful molecular cloning in bacteria and plants since they facilitate growth on antibiotic containing media after the modification of genes process. Therefore, these maker genes are convenient in the development phase but have no use in what sis finally produced. For instance, an antibiotic resistance gene that is available in many commercial GM crops is known as kanamycin resistance gene which encodes the neomycin phosphotransferase enzyme (Tepfer, M. 2004). This genes use has always been considered safe based amid the widespread occurrence of kanamycin resistance in environmental microorganisms, the low clinical relevance of kanamycin hence the likelihood of transfer to microorganisms after consumption is low.
In conclusion, the transfer of antibiotic resistance genes and the transfer of pathogenicity islands has played a very crucial role in the pathogenic strains of microorganism evolution. Factors influencing the human pathogenicity of microorganisms are numeral. They include; formation of adhesion molecules that bind to host cells like the adhesins of bacterial pili. Pathogens may also produce toxins and enzymes that cause damage in host cells which may support entry into tissues or suppress immune response.
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