Pediatrics is a branch in medicine that deals with children and their diseases. In a study conducted in Langley, a school age child was interviewed in the process of gathering information. Adolescent pregnancy has many complications. Her mother gave birth to her when she was at the age of sixteen. Ladies in this stage should use contraceptives in case they want to engage in sex. Some of the complications that are associated with adolescent pregnancy are; underweight children, stress and miscarriage. To reduce child mortality, in case of adolescent pregnancy, expectant mothers should seek medical attention and avoid stress. In addition, they should avoid drugs. Drugs such as alcohol cause the fetus to develop alcoholic syndrome. Such children, male or female, have a higher propensity to drink as early as grade four. Some families from medium income and higher income class have a family pediatrician. As compared to other families, they do not experience problems when it comes to pregnancy and its associated complications.
The family history of the child who was assessed was portrayed as low income settings. One of the uncles was suffering from diabetes mellitus, the father to the child was anemic, and the grandmother had high blood pressure. While gathering social history, it was evident that the mother was subjected to mentor torture as a result of rejection by the husband. Moreover, the mother was not well fed. She ate carbohydrates and vegetables mostly. Sometimes, she licked rocks to supplement her diet. Also, she ended up using drugs such as alcohol. In addition, the patient was living in a rental house. The house was located besides the market. Garbage was all over. During the second month of pregnancy, the patient’s mother smoked. She puffed fifty cigarettes. Concerning medical history, the patient had only used pain killers. These tablets were bought from the nearby chemist. She decided to use them without consulting the doctor. The child was allergic to dust.
The child was born underweight. In her first three months of growth, she added weight slowly. It was quit abnormal. At the age of eight months, she was six kilograms. She stunted in the seventh month adding 0.5 lbs. The child was born weighing 6 lbs. Also, she suffered from a number of diseases. These include; anemia, diabetes and allergic conditions. Consequently, the child suffered out of her mother’s ignorance. The first diagnosis made concerning these diseases was when the child attained the age of three years. In the age of two, the child was lively and very active. She developed hyperactivity disorder at the age of three. This prompted the mother to seek medical attention.
Personality theory is concerned with what makes a person different from another. Some people dwell on things like traits and types. Such things are used to compare or categorize people. Personality theorists are interested in people’s commonalities. Common features among people include; introversion and extroversion. One can either be an introvert or extrovert. The structure of the mind is also an area of concern for these theorists. It gives a clue on how people fall apart and how they work. Personality psychology gives information about the meaning of life and differences between people. Under personality theory, Sigmund discussed a three-tier theory which developed during various life stages. The Id is a component of personality at birth. It demands immediate gratification. If the needs are not met, the child becomes anxious. A limitation to this theory is that one cannot live the entire life gratifying bodily desires. For instance, a desire for more food makes one obese. In his explanation, ego develops from Id and operates at the unconscious, preconscious and conscious level. In addition, ego helps us to realize that not all that we may desire has to be met. Ego contributes to self-esteem and operates from reality principle. Finally, the super-ego is responsible for moral development and is of higher rank in functionality of a person. Right judgment is or made out by people at this stage. The major components of this stage are; ego ideal and conscience.
Psychosexual development theory has five stages. The first stage is anal stage. It occurs between zero and eighteen months of the child. Oral pleasure is associated with this theory. Activities during this stage include; biting nails, drinking and eating a lot. Children also tend to follow people at this stage and are highly dependent. Anal stage is characterized by retaining or eliminating feces. This occurs between 18 and 36 months. Children become possessed with control, cleanliness and perfection. Furthermore, they are retentive. During the phallic stage, male children get attached to their mothers while female ones to their fathers. Consequently, this leads to confused sexual identity and deviance. The latent stage emerges out of overt forms of displayed sexual gratification. Children at this stage form same sex friends. The last stage of psychosexual development theory is genital stage. It begins at puberty and is controlled by hormones. Genitals are focused as a source of pleasure and attraction to the opposite sex is evident.
Instincts theory focuses on libido. Sigmund explained libido as energy that seeks to release pleasure. This energy flows through ant-cathexis and cathexis paths. Further, he explained on the death instinct. The death instinct drives all things back to inorganic state. Other instincts that were discussed by Freud include; self-preservation and sex instincts.
The theory of religion builds up unconscious memories of children. Children become over-dependent on parental care and extreme helplessness. The child feels insecure when the mother is not around. Some children can even go to the neighborhood to get this protection. Moreover, they cry for their parents when they leave them.
Anticipatory guidance provides parents and professionals an opportunity to ask questions. It is prepared in five priority areas. These include; findings gathered from health history, concerns presented by the parent and his child, information about injury prevention and health promotion, nutrition and developmental issues. When providing nutrition information, diet and hygiene during eating should be discussed. Medical guidance gives information about family health history and immunizations.
Anemia can be diagnosed in three ways. These are; that caused by blood loss, iron deficiency and decreased red blood cell production. To treat anemia, the doctor can use drugs or dietary supplements. Drugs that are used are further grouped into two categories; iron supplement containing drugs and erythropoietin alpha. However, excess iron is harmful. Some of the symptoms of iron overload include; vomiting, headache and fatigue. Patients should be taught about these harmful effects. In addition, they should know that the body absorbs iron well in acidic medium.
It is important to assess the patient before treatment. Therefore, taking and keeping the patient’s history is very necessary.
Nelson, M. R. (2011). Pediatrics. New York: Demos Medical.
Osborn, L. M. (2005). Pediatrics. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Mosby.