- The exposure of CFCs to strong ultra violet radiation breaks them down. Whenever this occurs, the chlorofluorocarbon molecule produces atomic chlorine. Just one chlorine atom destroys over a hundred thousand ozone molecules. The overall effect is to wipe out ozone at a faster rate than naturally created (Abdul-Wahab 9).
- Penguins and marine ecosystems are sustained by the energy flow from primary producers in the food chain via intermediate consumers, consumers as well as pathogens, and then back through decomposition pathways (Prischmann 23). Therefore, marine lives are biological networks where the success of penguins is connected directly or indirectly via various biological interactions (for example, predator prey relationships, facilitation, competition, and mutualism) to the success or performance of other organisms within the community. The net effect of such interactions forms ecosystem function.
- In the year 1974, scientist published hypothesis that chemicals released could harm ozone layer. The ozone layer was believed to protect against ultraviolet radiation, which if allowed to penetrate into the Earth could lead to mutations and damages in plants, animal cells, as well as human beings. The scientist established that CFCs, widely used and believed to cause no harm, could move to the stratosphere, and by producing chlorine, deplete ozone layer (Abdul-Wahab 10).
In the year 1977, UNEP initiated a Global Plan of Action or operation on the ozone, which necessitated intensive global research as well as monitoring or examination of the ozone. In the year 1981, UNEP was mandated to draft a world framework convention to deal with stratospheric ozone protection. In the year 1985, the Vienna Convention was concluded. In this framework, states came to consensus to cooperate or collaborate in relevant scientific assessments and research of the ozone issue or problem, to share information, and to implement suitable measures to avoid activities which harm the ozone.
- The developing countries were enticed to take part in the ban on the production of CFCs through negotiations. A group under UNEP started negotiations or give and take discussions on a protocol, resulting to formation of the Montreal Protocol in 1987, nine months after negotiations started in December, 1986 (Murdoch, and Todd 5). This same technique can be employed to lure developing countries to reduce emission of greenhouse gases.
Abdul-Wahab, Sabah A. "Level of environmental awareness towards depletion of the ozone layer among distributors and consumers in the solvent sector: a case study from Oman." Climatic Change 3.1 (2010): 9. Print.
Murdoch, James C., and Todd Sandler. "The voluntary provision of a pure public good: The case of reduced CFC emissions and the Montreal Protocol." Journal of Public Economics 1.1 (2009): 5. Print.
Prischmann, Deirdre A. Poop-eaters: Dung Beetles in the Food Chain. Mankato, Minn: Capstone Press, 2008. Print.