Metacognition literally means thinking about thinking and it provides information on how and when a specific strategy can be used for learning. The role of metacognition is to notice when the attention diminishes, and planning plays an important role in comprehension activities, and that some types of adjunct information may facilitate planning in more able students (Chambres, Izaute and Pierre 2002). Another role, monitoring assesses the performance that is linked to contentment or resentment and helps the person judge to know about the personal objectives. The other role; Evaluating, helps in knowing the progress of the task completion.
A few study strategies that help students to be more metacognitive are self-questioning, self-accessing, monitoring their own learning, evaluating work and revising. Students must discuss plans and thoughts, and provide feedback to other students. The learning strategies can be visual learning, interactive learning, and print learning to name a few.
The process involved in problem solving is to be creative in finding the solutions in a different way to formulate the answers and achieve the goals. The strategies that can used for problem solving are analogical thinking, working backwards strategy, means ends analysis, and an algorithmic approach. Some factors that can affect problem solving are reduced ability to think in a different manner, depending on the samples and examples, assuming answers from previous experience, and less flexibility to signify the problems.
Creativity is defined as the ability to independently think out of the box and restructure problems to view the things in imaginative ways. Creativity can be accessed by intrinsic task motivation where the student develops passion to complete the task, and including work habits, and finding out the talent and creativity can be encouraged by brainstorming sessions, providing multicultural experiences, and accepting unique imaginative answers by the students.
The factors that influence students’ abilities to think critically are to define and clarify a problem, provide investigation reports on the problems and make conclusions. Arguments are supported when there is enough evidence and understanding of the problem to disapprove the opposition’s claim.
Knowledge learned in one situation must be applied when the principles learnt in one situation is different from other situation. Knowledge must be applied because a rule, fact or a learnt skill may be required in another situation, and knowledge can be either automatically transferred or intentionally transferred.
Chambres, Patrick., Izaute, Marie., Pierre-Jean Marescaux., (2002). Metacognition: Process, Function, and Use. Illustrated. Springer.