In 1938 through the civil Aeronautics Board (CAB) U.S government regulated many areas of commercial aviation as fares, routes and also schedules with an aim of creating a stable industry. Commercial aviation serves were heavily regulated by the government to eliminate the monopoly. Carriers were restricted from serving some routes and were treated as regulated utilities. This created a lot of inconvenience and after many considerations the United States government decided to deregulate the airline industry in 1978. The supporters of deregulation predicted that after deregulation prices would go higher in some markets and lower in some markets. Those who were against it predicted that effects of deregulation would be high airfares, poor quality service and safety deterioration. In reality deregulation brought some impacts on the aviation industry as follows; prices reduced due to capacity utilization. As a result of deregulation the quality of services offered has deteriorated according to the public views. Competition between carriers which was the main of the deregulation so as to lead to price decrease was not realized due to rise in airline alliances thus eliminating competition.
The main aim of deregulation was intended to do away with government control over routes, fares and market entry of new airlines from commercial aviation. Although the airfares have declined this trend is not evenly distributed throughout the national air transportation industry. The prices for air fares have only reduced hugely in longer distances but not in the shorter routes. Though this deregulation has brought about some positive results. After deregulation airlines reconfigured their equipments and routes making improvements in capacity utilization.
The actual benefits of deregulation of the airline industry are experienced hugely than the regulation time with low cost carriers gaining market share increasingly. It has also led to savings in dollars due to the act of giving airlines the freedom to innovate in pricing and routes. After deregulation the total number of passengers has grown steadily over the years. The passengers also are given more travel options to choose from thus leading to convenience with flight frequency which is great and non stop flights. This has changed and reduced the vice of travelers changing airlines so as to make connection thus leading to more customer satisfaction.
Part II A
Guillio Douhet an Italian general is largely recognized as great exponent of Airpower. The acceptability of his theories on the superiority of air power made him more popular. He argued that the air war and a systematic bombardment from the air, was a key requirement for victory in any modern war.
Air warfare was a vital component of World War II and it played a significant role in determining the winning side. Japan and Germany highly depended on air forces that were integrated closely with both naval forces and with the land. Britain and United States greatly depended on strategic bombing as they were able to control the battlefield by air, and adequate air defenses. Both built a strong force of large, long-range bombers that would carry air war to the enemy’s homeland. In addition they brought up tactical air forces that could win air superiority over the battlefields, thereby presenting key assistance to ground troops. They also came up with a naval –air component which was very powerful which was based on aircraft carriers. On the other hand Japan also played the central role in the war at the sea.
Second World War basically was the proving ground for airpower. The combined bomber offensive by the British and United States against Germany played a significant role of winning the war. Their success on the bombing strengthened the strategic bombing concept in the minds of the air force proponents as being the decisive factor in the warfare. Strategic bombing had severe effects on the Japanese homeland. Under the leadership of General Curtis E Lemay, American bombers carried out night time, low level incendiary attacks against the Japanese cities. In the year 1945, strategic attacks on air completely destroyed five principal urban centers in Japan.
The United States took a quick action to end Second World War after the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombings on the war against Japan. The air war against Japan became so severe and lethal until the United states strategic bombing survey came into a conclusion that: ``Based upon a through investigation, it is believed that Japan would have surrendered prior to 131 December 1945.in all probability it would have surrendered prior to 1 November 1945, even if the atomic bomb had not been dropped.’’ Thus, ascension of the strategic airpower was now decisive on its own right. He argued that use of the air force was an important thing that gave those who used it victory in the war against their enemies.
Part II Question B
Strategic defense initiative is was a plan initiated on 1983 by President Ronald Reagan. This plan was aimed at preventing United States from missile attacks from the other countries and in particular the Soviet Union. This program aimed at the United States detecting and destroying the incoming ballistic missiles as they were launched, as they approached their targets and as they flew. International space station is a habitable artificial satellite which was formed by both the United States and Russia. It is aimed at acting as a factory, observatory and laboratory in space. On the basis of experiences since the Columbia and challenger disasters , with respect to the international space station and the strategic defense initiative I agree with the conclusion that parochial interests that dominated the first decades of space exploration either have been or will be replaced by larger concerns or objectives.
According to the Burrows’ This New Ocean it is clear that the efforts to reach into space in 1990’s was almost impossible and Burrows the reasons behind this challenges were technology, ,various contexts of exploration and politics. The ancient dream of breaking gravity’s hold and taking to space came to be real because of the great cold war rivalry between the superpowers, with popular geniuses like Sergei korolyov and Wernher von Braun of putting aside the dreams for travelling to the space and instead to develop rockets of ballistic missiles and space speculators. Eventually after Russian archives became open new pictures of the spaces emerged after declassification of documents which were of top secret. Great efforts by the Soviet Union to be superior to the United States were highly condemned and it was all without success. This was likened to dogs fighting under the carpet by Winston Churchill. Many times the astronauts and cosmonauts pretended to be boy scouts in efforts to be allowed to be travel to the space but their plead was rejected.
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