Different ideas have emerged regarding the society and acceptable behaviors in the same. Such ideas have since been adopted into said societies with some being the views of individuals and others originating from thoughts of governance and societal correlation. The Doctrine of Fascism and the English Bills of Rights are both ideas and regulations regarding communities but originating from very different sources. This is so in the sense that, while the Doctrine of Fascism originated from the ideas of one person, the Bill of Rights passed through Congress before its adoption. However, as their derivation, these ideas have some contrasts and similarities in what they dictate. To understand these facts, there is need for an analysis of The Doctrine of Fascism and Hitler's Mein Kampf against those of The English Bills of Rights and the French Declaration of the Rights of Man.
While there are differences, there are also some similarities between all four documents mentioned. Therefore, there is need for an examination of the identified texts and in turn, their dictations regarding the target populations.
Written by Mussolini Benito in 1932, The Doctrine of Fascism covered a period of political and communal instability in Italy. As an aftermath of the World War 1, the movement marked the generation’s state of confusion after the war. The Doctrine communicated different ideas that support the idea of communism instead of individualism with regard to war and life after the war. In other words, the doctrine corresponds with rules of war, how the soldiers ought to relate with each other in the battlefield and in turn, ensure unity for the Italian troops.
With regard to life after the war, The Doctrine of Fascism as stated above encourages the need for all Italians to stand together and not go back to life as it was before the Great War. In The Mystery of Fascism, Steel writes that, “Outside the State there can be neither individuals nor groups (political parties, associations, syndicates, classes). Therefore, Fascism is opposed to Socialism, which confines the movement of history within the class struggle and ignores the unity of classes” This is an excerpt of Mussolini’s idea regarding the Fascist movement. He invites the idea of destroying society as it is and in turn, build one that encourages unity regardless of one’s economic status and previous societal norms. According to him, societal classes are the peoples’ undoing as they try to rebuild Italy.
Hitler's Mein Kampf of 1964 is another form of individual idealism but is in this case with regard to Germany. According to Hockenos, “In it you'll find radical anti-Semitism, Hitler's will to dominate the world, völkisch nationalism, Aryan supremacy, the logic of eugenics, and his justifications for a Führer-led state” All his ideas found basis on the idea that the Jews were on a conspiracy to take over the world. While he makes this known, he in turn goes against ideas of communism alongside that Judaism in a bid to create a new order in the world. Throughout the book, Hitler puts forward his idea of Germany extending its borders while ridding itself of all that can stand in its way. In this case, Judaism and communism were the main threats.
While Hitler sought to take care of his country after World War 1, his ideologies sought to revive Germany from the repercussions of the war. For instance, the dictations of the Versailles Treaty caused more harm to Germany than it did any good. One such clause entailed the restriction of Germany to one hundred thousand militiamen while the country lost many of its territories. After the Great War, Germany held a grudge against the world as a whole and this could be the major reason behind the people’s acceptance of Hitler’s Mein Kampf. His ideologies entailed the forceful invasion of her neighbors while going against the terms of the treaty.
The Doctrine of Fascism and Hitler's Mein Kampf are ideas originating from individuals that sought to better their fellow citizens’ lives after a state of war. However, the idea of attempting to revive their countries is the only similarity between the two. From the contents of their movements and the proposals set forth in each of them, Hitler and Mussolini’s ideas are different. Arguably, since the war had different impacts on the involved countries, the revival tactics were different. Italy had few benefits after the war under the Treaty of London (Steele). On the other hand, Germany lost financial and political stability as punishment as the country was considered responsible for the war.
The English Bills of Rights of 1689 and the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizens of 1789 were each written with different goals. With regard to The English Bill of Rights, the document sought to control the reign of the royals in Europe. The Declaration of the Rights of Man was on the other hand written in a bid to dictate the rights of all citizens and the duties of parliament and other people in power. It is important to note that, these were written before the Fascism movement and Hitler’s’ reign in Germany because most of what both documents dictate go against the ideologies set by the two Acts.
Fascism dictates communism and encourages the destruction of socio-economic classes to aid in rebuilding the nation. This is in line with the Declaration of the Rights of Man in which the first article states that, “Men are born and remain free and equal in rights. Social distinctions may be founded only upon the general good” Mussolini adheres to this when he urges his followers to stand together as equals. However, since the general good demands the loss of social distinctions, he opts for the opposite of this declaration without actually being against the same. This is so because as the article suggests, social distinctions can be put in place only for the societal good, offering different possibilities in applying the same.
While Hitler's Mein Kampf aims at aiding the Germans it went against The Declaration of the Rights of Man and The English Bill of Rights as Hitler’s views dictate anti Judaism and anti Communism in Germany. As stated in the bill, “That the raising or keeping a standing army within the kingdom in time of peace, unless it be with consent of Parliament, is against law” (Lillian Goldman Law Library) was the first clause Hitler went against as he raised an army and led his men into battle with the aim of eradicating the world of all Jews. Moreover, his actions also went against the clause that states, “By assuming, and exercising a power of dispensing with and suspending of laws and the execution of laws without consent of Parliament” (Lillian Goldman Law Library) Hitler’s ideology and reasoning did not consider the good of all people but sought to gain vengeance on Germany’s behalf. Besides, all the views written in his doctrine heeded no thought to the harm his views will cause.
With regard to The Declaration of the Rights of Man, Hitler’s hate for Jews went against the statement that, “No one shall be disquieted on account of his opinions, including his religious views, provided their manifestation does not disturb the public order established by law” (Lillian Goldman Law Library) His belief in Jews seeking to bring the world to its knees drove his hatred and in turn, led to the massacre of those practicing the religion. It can also be argued that, his ideas went against the clause that, “Liberty consists in the freedom to do everything which injures no one else; hence the exercise of the natural rights of each man has no limits except those which assure to the other members of the society the enjoyment of the same rights” (Lillian Goldman Law Library) Hitler’s beliefs went against this clause, as despite his argument that the Jews were seeking to bring a new order, he had no proof of the same. In addition, he led his nation into yet another war that saw much more distraction in his beloved country.
While there are differences, there are also some similarities between all four documents mentioned. While the Bill of rights and the declaration of the rights of man found basis on the needs of people as a whole, the Fascist Doctrine and Hitler's Mein Kampf are based on the ideas of individuals and their experiences in life. Therefore, the differences that result should be expected especially with regard to individualism. However, ideas finding basis on communism have few differences because they aim at the better good of all people and not just the creator of said idea.
Hockenos, Paul. "Defusing 'Mein Kampf'." The Chronicle of Higher Education 1 July 2012.
Lillian Goldman Law Library. "An Act Declaring the Rights and Liberties of the Subject and Settling the Succession of the Crown." The Avalon Project ( 2008).
Lillian Goldman Law Library. "Declaration of the Rights of Man - 1789." The Avalon Project (2008).
Steele, David. "The Mystery of Fascism." The Libertarian Alliance (2002).