The paper focuses on understanding the pedagogical and andragogical approaches of learning and instruction. Pedagogical approach is usually curriculum based learning imparted by the teachers for making the learners understand the basic concept on which their future learning will be based. On the contrary, andragogical approach is based on self directed learning, a motivation towards learning and development, orientation which focuses on learning, willingness to gain knowledge and previous learning experiences. Andragogical approach is mostly used by organizations to train employees on various organizational issues which in our case is sexual harassment and its complaint handling. Sometimes, a blend of both pedagogical and andragogical approaches is considered essential to make learning an efficient activity.
Basics of Pedagogical and Andragogical Approaches
Gradually, it was realized that the pedagogical method of training is not suitable for adults as their learning preferences are different and they are much mature to be taught like children in classrooms. The adult training and learning is based on topics which include technology, innovation and collaborative learning as opposed to text based learning for children in schools. Therefore, the concept of andragogical approach to training was introduced to promote learning in adults using a two way communication technique.
Comparison and Contrast of Pedagogical and Andragogical Approaches in Learning and Instruction
Principles of Andragogical Approaches
Brookfield (1986) mentioned that basically adults make use of five rules which have a strong influence on their learning and training. These five rules include their motivation to acquire knowledge; keenness towards learning; self concept; learning based orientation and; previous learning experiences.
Andragogy is mostly based on two way communication where input from learners is encouraged. The sessions are mostly seen as interactive and focus on collaborative learning. Andragogy can also be viewed as an approach which is self directed. This means that the participants in a training session are mature and know how learning can benefit them in their future actions- they understand that learning is based on their own decision and the amount of the lesson absorbed and practiced will totally depend on their personal control mechanism. Andragogical approach is entirely dependent on the nature of self directed capability of a learner or participant.
Principles of Pedagogical Approaches
The pedagogical approach towards learning is quite simple whereas there is quite a lot of complication in the andragogical approach. In pedagogical methods of teaching, it is usually the instructor’s knowledge which is being communicated with little or no input from children whereas when adults are being trained in organizations, their preferences and nature of job is taken into account. Adults are experienced and possess knowledge on a wide range of topic-the training of adults is basically a fine tuning process or may be making them adhere to some rules and regulations sincerely.
Role of Motivation in Adult Learning
Werner, DeSimone (2009) came up with the notion that adults benefit from the core aim of andragogical approach only when they are motivated from inside. This means that when adults have intrinsic motivation to learn or when they are open to learning, only then they are able to mould their perceptions and actions according to the learning content. It is also argued that even children in the pedagogical approach learn when they express their willingness to learn however, the case of adults is of more emphasis.
In an organization where there is a need to create awareness about sexual harassment program, we will make use of andragogical approach and also some aspects of pedagogical approach. It will be rather interesting to find out how andragogical approach with pedagogical approach to ensure the implementation of a successful learning and training program.
Sexual Harassment Program and Blend of Pedagogical and Andragogical Approaches
Adults have gained ample awareness about the topic of sexual harassment from environment and the training program will help them understand how they can implement the program and benefit from it. The andragogical approach will make the training program more focused on the issue and participants would view it as an essential in the process of personal and organizational development. The andragogical approach will allow the participants to discuss the topic of sexual harassment with more openness and responsiveness and ask for suggestion on how the complaint handling process can be formulated and maintained with efficiency and effectiveness. Participants would be allowed to present their ideas on the topic in accordance with law so that the issue of sexual harassment can be eliminated or at least reduced within the organization. The pedagogical approach will actively intervene in the training program. The curriculum, documents on law, rationale emphasis and complete guide of legal mechanism will be derived from the pedagogical approach of learning and training for the successful implementation of sexual harassment training program.
Viewpoint of Human Resource Development (HRD) on Pedagogical and Andragogical Appraoches
The human resource development (HRD) professionals and researchers view learning process as composed of both pedagogical and andragogical approaches of learning. They see learning as a continuous process which cannot be completed without having characteristics from both approaches including problem focused approach, two way communication, curriculum based learning, collaborative approach to learn and implement openness and motivation to learn (CB, 2010).
We have learned that pedagogical approach is meant for teaching young children by making use of conventional teaching methods based on curriculum. On the contrary, andragogical approach to learning and instruction is directed at adult learning. Organizations make use of andragogical approach more but in certain training programs such as the implementation of sexual harassment and complaint handling, a blend of pedagogical and andragogical approach can be used so as to make the session interactive while relating it to legal mechanisms.
Brookfield, S. (1986). Understanding and facilitating adult learning. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Inc.
CB. (2010). Pedagogical and Andragogical Approaches of Instruction: Which Is More Suited to the Adult Learner?. Available: https://2fragments.wordpress.com/2010/08/08/pedagogical-and-andragogical-approaches-of-instruction-which-is-more-suited-to-the-adult-learner/. Last accessed 16th Jan 2015.
Knowles, M. (1970). The modern practice of adult education: Andragogy versus pedagogy. New York: Association Press
Werner, J., & DeSimone, R. (2009). Human Resource Development (5th ed.).Mason, OH: South Western Cengage Learning.