The Republic of Botswana
Located in the Southern Part of Africa and boarders with Zimbabwe, Zambia, South African Republic. The republic gained its independence in 1966 and set Gaborne as a capital city.
The first inhabitants the territory of modern Botswana were hunters and gatherers who spoke Khoisan languages. Ancient people found in the Tsodilo Hills are about to XVIII century BC. In the last few centuries BC. some tribes in the north began to deal with animals, using a relatively fertile pasture land around the Okavango Delta and Lake Makgadikgadi (Britannica 6).
Since about 1095 began the spread of culture Moritsane related southeastern Botswana: its bearers were the tribes of Sotho-Tswana, which, although owned by the Bantu people, engaged in animal husbandry rather than agriculture. From a material point of view, this culture also combines the features of the old upper Neolithic cultures (like Bambaataa) and bantuskoy culture eastern Transvaal (Leydenbergskaya culture). Dissemination of culture Moritsane due to the growing influence of the leaders of Kgalagadi.
In the XIII century Sotho Tswana chiefs began to gain strength in the Western Transvaal. In 1840, after the war, the state Tswana - Ngvaketse, Kwena, Ngvato and Tawana - began to strengthen its influence in the region, as well as trade in ivory and ostrich feathers from the Cape in the south.
In the years 1867-1869 the country began gold mining in Tati near Francistown, but because of the discovery of diamonds in South Africa, "Gold Rush" was a short-term phenomenon. In the 1880s, began to develop the German colonization of South-West Africa. Thus the tensions in the region grew, and in 1885 the Tswana chiefs appealed to the British crown for protection.
The territory of Bechuanaland was divided into eight self-managed tribal reservations and five blocks of settlements of the white population, which had the status of crown lands. In 1951 he was created a joint advisory board, and in 1961 - a constitution was adopted, which provided for the establishment of the Legislative Assembly who was entitled to a deliberative vote. Later Britain did not want to change the political structure of the country as long as the beginning of the independent development of its economy. After that the country started its economic growth and political independence.
Botswana is located in Southern Africa. The country has 581 730 km ², of which land area is 566,730 km ². Extent of Botswana in the direction from north-east to south-west is 1110 km, from the east-south-east to west-north-west - 960 km . country has borders in the south and south-east of south Africa (1840 km) in the north and west of Namibia (1360 km) in the north-east Zambia (single point) and Zimbabwe (813 km). The total length of the border is 4013 km
Most of the country is located in the belt of subtropical climate . Average maximum temperature in January is 33 ° C, July 22 ° C, the average minimum of 18 ° C in January and 5 ° C in July. Average temperature in January moves from 22 to 27 ° C, in July - from 14 to 16 ° C, the amplitude of diurnal temperature reaches 22 ° C, winter frosts. In many areas of the hottest month is October, and with the beginning of the rainy season, which in most areas is held in November-March, the average temperature is reduced by 1,5-2 ° C.
70% of Botswana is located in the vast shallow drainage basins Kalahari. The average height of 800-1000 m in the west to 1200 m Highest point - in the Tsodilo Hills (1489 m), the lowest - in the area of the confluence of the Limpopo and Shashe (513 m).
Vast plateau with an average altitude of 1,200 m, extending from the north to the border with Kanye Zimbabwe, divides the country into two topographical area. The eastern region is a hilly area with predominantly shrubs and grass. To the west of the plateau lie the Okavango swamps and the Kalahari Desert.
Okwaga is the largest river in Botswana. The country has 2.9 km ³ of renewable water sources, of which 46% is used for agricultural purposes. Almost all of the urban population and 90% of rural residents have access to clean water.
In the interior of the country contains a large amount of minerals - discovered deposits of diamonds, gold, oil, nickel, copper, manganese, cobalt, lead, zinc, coal, asbestos, sulfur, talc, bromine.
Diamonds have the Greatest importance to the economy. In 1967 the first kimberlite pipe was found, near the village of Orapa, 240 km from the city of Francistown, then the tubes were found in the area and Letlhakane Tsvanenga. Botswana diamonds are known for their high quality - 30% of them are used to make jewelry.
Botswana is a democratic republic with a multiparty system.
Executive: The president is the head of the country, government and the commander of national troops.
The president is elected every 5 years by the National Assembly.
Legislature: Bicameral Parliament consists of the National Assembly and the House of Chiefs. The National Assembly consists of 61 deputies, 57 of which are elected through direct elections and 4 appointed by the majority party.
Judiciary: Botswana's judicial system consists of the Supreme Court, Appellate Court and the courts of Magistrates of the first, second and third grades. The Minister of Justice shall be appointed by the President and is the Chairman of the Commission on the Legal Service, which is the president for the nomination of judges. The legal system is based on Roman-Dutch and local customary law.
The most influential party in the country is the Democratic Party of Botswana, which was founded even before the country gained independence under the name "Bechuanaland Democratic Party."
Botswana's population is about 2 million people, of which 66.8% Tswana, Calang 14.8%, Ndebele 1.7%, 1.4%, Herero, San (Bushmen) 1.3% 1.3% Afrikaners, others 12.7%. Population density - 3.2 persons per km ². Urban population is 53.6% of the whole population.
Birth rate - 23.2 per 1,000 inhabitants (2007), the mortality rate - 13.6 per 1,000 population (2007). Natural increase - 9.6 per 1,000 inhabitants (2007). Total fertility rate (2007) - 2.73 children per woman. According to the 2007 23.9% of the adult population (15-49 years) infected with the AIDS.
The economically active population is 587 882 people (2001), ie 35.0% of the total population. 57.6% of the economically active population are workers aged 15 to 64 years, the number of women - 43.8% of the economically active population. Unemployment is over 20% (2004).
Economy & Economic performance
The history of Botswana's economy is one of the most successful in Africa. The country's economy was based almost entirely on livestock until 1970, when Botswana became exporter of diamonds and other minerals. The rapid growth of the diamond mining enable Botswana to achieve high economic growth in 1966-1997 (average annual growth of 9.2%), after which the economy has affected the Asian financial crisis. In 2000, the growth was 7.7% and inflation of 10%. In 2004, inflation was 7%. Despite the relatively well-developed infrastructure with good roads, communication system in the country there is a shortage of technical skills in the workforce . (Encyclopedia of the Nations)
Gross domestic product is 10 991 million (2007), 5840 U.S. dollars per capita in PPP U.S. $ 12,420 per capita .The budget (2005-2006) is 21,697,300,000 pool, expenses 20,122,200,000 pul.The official unemployment rate is 23.8%, but the real - is closer to 40%
Structure of gross domestic product and the allocation of labor across sector (Britannica. World data: Botswana)
The economy of the country is the mining of diamonds, which in 2000 accounted for 33% of GDP, 45% of budget revenues and 75% of exports. Botswana is one of the world's leading diamond producer, ranking first in the world for the cost of mined diamonds. Only 0.7% of the territory is arable land.The main problems of agriculture are the traditional methods of conducting and frequent droughts. Most agricultural land is in the east of the country.
The main part of the electricity produced in the country, the company produces Botswana Power Corporation, which was founded in 1970. The largest thermal power plant in the country are located in Morupole (capacity 123 MW) and in Selebi-Piqua (60 MW)
Imports (2005): 3,247,000 USD (machinery and apparatus 16.3%, food, beverages and tobacco 13.7%, mineral fuels 13.3%, transport equipment 12.5%, chemical and rubber products 11 9%). Main exporters: Southern African Customs Union countries 85.1%, Europe 6.5%, Zimbabwe 1.5%.
Exports (2005): 4.395 million U.S. dollars (75.1% of the diamonds, copper-nickel ore 10.3%, textiles 5.0%, meat 1.7%). Major importers: Europe 77.0% (of which 75.7% UK), Southern African Customs Union countries 9.0%, Zimbabwe 4.1% .
Literacy (2005) is 78.6% of the population over 15, men literacy - 78.6%, women - 84.1% The system of higher education includes the University of Botswana in Gaborone, Botswana and the College of Agriculture
There are is lot of public and private hospitals in the country. Public hospitals are divided into three levels depending on the severity of the disease. The three largest hospitals are located in Gaborone, Francistown and Lobatse. In 2006 there were 526 doctors (1 in 3346 people), 3,911 beds in hospitals (1 in 450). Total expenditure on health (2006) account for 7.2% of GDP.
23.9% of the adult population (15-49 years) are infected with AIDS (According to an estimate in 2007 ).
The most ancient monument of art in Botswana is Tsodilo rock paintings in the north-east of the country, which contains more than 4,500 drawings in the Kalahari area of approximately 10 km ².
There are many contemporary artists, whose works are sold in stores, as well as put up for display in Gaborone and Francistown, the most famous of which are the exhibition of the National Museum. The first book, published in Botswana, was the Bible dated XIX century. Literature in the country initially developed through translations - some interpreters, such as Saul Dress and LD Raditladi, translated into the language of Tswana number of plays by William Shakespeare. Botswana music shaped by the integration of musical cultures of the people living in the country. The most popular form of music in Botswana is Gumba Gumba, which is a modernized Zulu and Tswana music, mixed with jazz. The largest museum of the country is the National Museum and Art Gallery in Gaborone, which was opened in 1968 and contains material on the ethnography and history of Botswana, as well as works of art of the country and also region. Est ethnographic museums located in Francistown, Kanye and Mochudi and the Postal Museum in Gaborone.
Republic of Uganda
In ancient times, the territory was inhabited by Pygmies of Uganda. Then the country was settled by Bantu tribes. Since the XI century Nilotic tribes began to come to the north and north-east. The first Europeans arrived in 1860. In 1862, the expedition led by Englishman John Speke arrived in Buganda. He drew the "king" of Buganda Mutesu to Christianity. Heligoland by treaty in 1890 between Britain and Germany, England got a free hand in Uganda. There was aimed expedition led by 32-year-old retired officer, a veteran of the wars in Afghanistan and Sudan Frederick Lugardom which concluded a contract with the "king" Mwangi. Buganda has been taken under protectorate of Britain In June 1894, and then the neighboring tribes were forced to recognize the same.
March 1, 1962, Great Britain granted Uganda a government, and October 9, 1962 - full independence. Immediately after independence, Uganda had problems - ethnic clashes, riots in the Army, the exodus of Europeans. Obote imposed state planning of the economy, expanded the state and cooperative sectors.
But In January 1986, a military junta overthrew the People's Resistance Army. Museveni declared himself president.
Uganda is situated in the north-west of the East African highlands, in the African Great Lakes region, mainly in the area of savannah and woodland subequatorial. Surface of Uganda - Plateau height of 1000-1500 m, with individual peaks (Ruwenzori massif, height up to 5109 m). Dissected upland valleys, often waterlogged. The climate is sub-equatorial, humid summer, relaxed considerable height above sea level. The average temperature in the coldest month of 20 °, the warmest 25 °. In the vegetation is dominated by tall-grass savannas, preserved small tracts of tropical forests .
The fauna is rich with elephants, hippos, buffaloes, antelopes, giraffes, lions, leopards, monkeys. Many birds and reptiles (crocodiles, snakes) and insects (the tsetse fly, the malaria mosquito, etc.).
Uganda - authoritarian presidential republic where all power is concentrated in the presidency. From January 1986 - Lt. Gen. Yoweri Museveni. It - the head of government. Presidential elections are held every 5 years, the number of terms of the presidency - not limited.
Unicameral parliament - 332 deputies, 215 elected by popular vote for a five-year period, 104 are assigned to different groups (79 women, 10 military, 5 disabled, 5 of Youth, 5 of Trade Unions), 13 members are appointed by the state office).
Political parties are allowed from 2005. The largest party in Parliament (205 members) - National Resistance Movement.
The country has the rebel groups, the largest - the LRA.
For centuries, the main export of Uganda was ivory and animal skins. In the 1970s, the economy was destroyed by the policy of Idi Amin - inflation exceeded 100%. The economic level of 1972 was achieved only by the end of the 90s.
Natural resources: copper, cobalt, niobium, gold, tungsten, hydropower, arable land.
GDP per capita in 2009 - $ 1.341 million (204 th in the world) (Uganda Country Report) .
Below the poverty line - about a third of the population.
Since 2011, the Ugandan economy declined from gross domestic product (GDP) growth of over 6% the previous year to 4.1%. Over the course of the year, inflation averaged 18.8%, up from 4.1% in 2010, the exchange rate depreciated by 6.2% against the US dollar (USD), and the trade deficit increased from 9.6% to 10.8% of GDP. (African Economic Outlook).
However social indicators continued to improve and HDI (Human Development Index) in the country has got 0.024 pints up. (2010 – 0.422 and 0.446 in 2011).
Real GDP growth slowed down in 2011 to an estimated 4.1% (Figure 1). Projections prepared for the 2012 African Economic Outlook, suggest it will improve in 2012 to 4.5% and to 4.9% in 2013. (African Economic Outlook).
The chief macroeconomics indicators are shown at the table below:
We may see from the graph that the growth is not constant. Thus the overall economy growth is expected in 2013: the growth of real GDP (0.4 %), Real GDP per capita (0.4 %), the reduction of inflation level (-1.9 %). Inflationary pressures are forecast to subside in 2012 and to reach single digits in 2013, reflecting both global declines in food and fuel prices, as well as the impact of monetary tightening by the Bank of Uganda (BoU).
The main sector of the economy is agriculture (82% of employees and 22% of GDP), the main export product - coffee. The country also cultivates tea, cotton, tobacco, sugar cane, cassava (tapioca), potatoes, corn, millet, flowers, fishing, livestock management is weak.
Industry: (5% of employees and 25% of GDP) - sugar, brewing, tobacco, textile.
Exports - $ 2.7 billion in 2008, coffee, fish, tea, cotton, flowers and gold.
The main buyers: Sudan 14.3%, Kenya 9.5%, Switzerland 9%, Rwanda 7.9%, UAE 7.4%.
Imports: $ 4 billion in 2008 - manufactured goods, vehicles, petroleum products, medicines, grains.
Major suppliers: UAE 11.4%, Kenya 11.3%, India 10.4%, China 8.1%, South Africa 6.7%, Japan 5.9%.
Population - 33.4 million (estimate for July 2010).
Annual growth - 3.6% (2nd in the world);
Birth rate - 48 per 1,000 (fertility - 6.73 births per woman (2nd in the world), the infant mortality rate - 64 per 1000);
Mortality rate - 12 per 1,000;
The average life expectancy - 52 years for men, 54 years for women (2010);
Average age - 14.8 years (the youngest country).
Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) - 6.4% (estimate for 2010)
The urban population - 13% (UBOS).
The first schools in Uganda were established by missionaries, who used the education system adopted in the UK. Currently, the school is in the introduction of the state and private individuals. More than half of primary school do not go to secondary school, and over a third have graduated from high school, unable to continue their education. In 1994, the adult literacy rate was 62 percent. Makerere University - the largest and most prestigious educational institution in Uganda.
Botswana -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/75170/Botswana/
Economy - Botswana - average, growth, economic growth, infrastructure, policy, sector. http://www.nationsencyclopedia.com/Africa/Botswana-ECONOMY.html
Britannica. World data: Botswana
Uganda Bureau of Statistics (UBOS) (2002). Main report. Uganda Population and Housing Census. http://www.ubos.org/onlinefiles/uploads/ubos/pdf%20documents/2002%20Census%20Final%20Reportdoc.pdf
Bank of Uganda, . "QUARTERLY MACROECONOMIC REPORT Q4 2010." (2011): n.pag. BOU Database. Web. 10 Apr 2013.
"Uganda Country Report." Global Finance 2012.
"Uganda." African Economic Outlook. N.p., 22 June 2012. Web. 14 Apr. 2013