The atmosphere by delineation refers to the gaseous composition together with other particles that surround the surface of the earth. In the atmosphere, there are gases, and the solid particles that are in suspension. Scientifically, the atmosphere is divided into four major layers. Using the ascending order, the first layer is the troposphere that rises about 10-13 km from the surface of the earth. This is closely followed by the stratosphere that rises over 50km above, them the thermosphere that rises between 80-480 km, and lastly the exosphere that goes beyond the 480 km and gradually dissipates in the upper layers of the atmosphere.
The atmosphere contains most of the atoms and molecules that are neutral. The ionosphere is different from the rest of the layers since its gases are electrically charged. This means they have both positive as well as the negative charges. It begins shortly in the stratosphere and is a distinct layer in the thermosphere. All the layers that contain various gas types in the atmosphere are called the ozone layers. In the light of this essay, various types of definitions shall be looked into with illustrations that will be relevant. The ozone layer will be discussed, the greenhouse effect, and the global warming together with its effects to both the earth and human activities.
Ozone is a layer that can be represented by O3 and binds to the stratosphere layer in the atmosphere. This layer shields the earth’s surface from getting direct radiations of Ultra Violet light from the sun. Interestingly enough, it is the combination of the oxygen atom that makes up the ozone layer. The formation of ozone dates back to the electrical combination of two oxygen molecules, which combines with another atom to form ozone (O3).
Important point-to-point out is that the chemicals found in the ozone layer find their ways to the stratosphere layer where they destroy the ozone layer through a series of chemical reactions. People who live in higher elevators have less protection to UV lights, since the distance between the layers is small, and thus they get more exposed to the light energy, a condition which is not good to people’s skins. The chemical formula for the ozone layer has been indicated in the above discussion is O3. It contains two oxygen atoms that are combined chemically with another atom of oxygen to form their atoms of oxygen molecule.
The essential chemicals that deplete the ozone layer include the volcanic eruptions especially those that occurred in Mt. Pinatubo in the year 1991, and those of El Chichon of 1983. Such disruptions affect the ozone layer, and it is destroyed to allow rays o reach the surface of the earth. Other gases such as the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) can result to depletion of the ozone layer once they reach the layer through the chemicals that are contained in the gases. These gases when they reach chemically become hazardous to both the layers that are protective to the earth’s surface. Other chemical that also depletes this layer are Bromine chemicals, carbon, tetra chlorides, halons, and the hydro fluorocarbons.
The Ozone hole is a reaction in the concentrations of ozone that is high above the stratosphere layer. Geographically, this layer contains much or less than 220 Dobson Units. It has grown in size up to 27 million square km in length. Less of the atmospheric ozone to the earth’s surface is very important to the human activities on the earth’s surface. Truly, the effect of having ozone rays directly facing the surface of the earth destroys human activities like the crops, plantations, makes them to dry and hence they cannot do well. With this effect, destruction of the humans crops will destroys their living standards, as most people will start from scratch.
In addition, the gases may prevent the coming of rains if they are more during global warming. Less of the gases will promote rains to be received, as well as the activities of people will flourish since the burning rays do not affect them. The ozone layer can be protected if the existing restrictions of the ODS (Ozone depleting Substances) are protected. The ODS can be replaced by the friendly climate alternatives, preventing illegal trading on the ODS, and also reducing use of these substances will protect the ozone layer.
The process by which the greenhouse gases get absorbed into the planetary surface as they get irradiated to all directions causing the abnormal warning on the surface of the earth is called greenhouse effect (Kraljic & Matthew, 1992 p.46). The vapor in the water plus the carbon IV oxide increases the temperature of the surface of the earth hence the greenhouse effect. The chemical gases involved forming greenhouse gases are methane, carbon, and fluorine, among other gases.
The green house effect forms when the rays of the sun get into the earth’s surface, and they are reflected back to the atmosphere thus increasing the temperature of the earth’s surface. The changing gas levels in the atmosphere contribute a lot to changing in the atmospheric gases, which increases the greenhouse, gases, hence the greenhouse effect. In the developing nations such as the G8 countries like Russia, USA, and Germany, the level of the green house gases are minimal since they impose strict laws to firms that emit gases to the atmosphere. The developing nations like in Africa do not have good measures that reduce the gas emission, and that is why they are affected most with the bad effects of the greenhouse effect on the earth’s surface.
The process by which the surface temperatures on the earth increase due to the effects of greenhouse gases such as carbon IV oxide, chlorofluorocarbons and other polluting agents is called global warming. Scientists propose that the increasing greenhouse gases are the key contributors to global warming. It has consequences like increasing temperatures on the earth, causes a rise and the fall of ocean tides, changing in direction of the ocean winds, and affects the life of ocean animals like fish among other things.
Greenhouse effect and global warming are related. The gases that contribute to the greenhouse effect are the same gases that affect the global warming. The greenhouse effect causes the rise in temperatures on the earth’s surface, same case like in the global warming. Global warming happens in life. Its effects on the earth substantiate its existence like the rising and falling of ocean levels and the sea currents.
Most countries especially the developed nations have imposed strict rules to firms that produce pollutants to the atmosphere since these gases are the ones that contribute to the rising air temperatures on the earth’s surface. Such protocols are crucial since the effects of global warming will be curbed unlike in the non-developed nations such as the African continent. A leeway to the atmospheric emissions should be imposed to the developing countries, in order to improve their current emission standards. The developed nations can assist the developing nations to pay for the various damages those global warming causes.
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