Sarros,Copper & Santora(2008) finds that most organizations concentrate in bringing the latest technological infrastructure to transform the procedures of work. In doing so, organizations tend to ignore the workers and organization culture which is the engine that has the most impact. An organization culture depends with the founders of the institution their beliefs and core practices. It is vital for an organization to engage the employees who design products to enable the organization become successful. Leaders’ decision-making criteria affect the behavior of workers. In this view Sarros,et al (2008) suggest that to ensure a high performance culture an organization must plan good choices to ensure people understand the structures of the organization. Leaders can train the employees on the kind of culture they expect. Leaders can inform workers how the organization handles different situations to ensure success. The leaders in an organization must define the vision and mission to the people to make it an element of success within the organization.
Initiatives to Improve Relationships
An organization must diversify in respect with the variety of people working to create a sense of belonging to everyone. People belong to different races, cultures, and different socio-economic status. An organization must have suitable environment to accommodate the various people in society. The leaders in an organization must accept and respect the differences that exist due to variety of cultures. An organization can conduct cultural self-assessment to enable social interactions. An organization can hold discussions to enable the employees adjust with the organization culture that makes effort to attain cultural competence. Organizations must interact with the varying cultures and strive for intergenerational. Sarros et al (2008) states that cultural competent organization can translate to proactive change and produce synergetic effect.
Components of Cultural Assessment
An organization has to employ a unique market identity detail in its core vision, mission, and core value statement Sarros et al (2008).An organization must use corporate branding to set it apart from other organizations. An organization must state the dream it intends to accomplish in future. Organization must detail the philosophy in the accomplishment of work. An organization must detail a strategic plan that provides the organization with a road map to realize the vision and mission. An organization must have a plan of action that illustrates activity within a year. This work must be in line with the strategic plan that is subject to analysis at the end of every year. Every organization must have a financial budget that monitors the income and expenditure to ensure the organization is successful (Sarros et al., 2008).
The impact of cultural patterns of communication
Leaders in an organization must learn different cultures of people to steer communication within an organization. Employees must communicate well with each other to ensure they understand each other. An organization must employ varying conflict management styles. This is because some cultures perceive conflicts as important parts in communication while in some communities perceive arguments as offensive. Verbal communication and body language can cause conflict due to cultural diversity. Some cultures like firm handshakes while others like a bow and a smile (Sarros et al., 2008). Conflicts in cross-cultural communication can affect the organization negatively and organization must upgrade their intercultural communication to ensure success.
Racism, prejudice, discrimination, hatred, and ethnic violence in the workplace
Prejudice is an unfavorable attitude towards people due to their skin color, gender, class, or sexual orientation. Leaders in an organization must address all the forms of discrimination by encouraging and establishing inclusive practices on the employees. An organization must make effort and reduce hatred and racism as the world residents become mobile and diverse. Everybody in the organization must have fair measure of success without the identification of a particular group. Sarros et al (2008) offer that organization must have the desire to address inequalities through civil and human rights programs to reduce all forms of oppression in the workplace. Racism prevents people from attaining their full contribution in the society and this can weaken an entire organization. Leaders in every organization must accommodate all the people for a harmonious corporation.
Impact of immigration in the changing demographics of the United States
Nijhawan, Jacob & Woolerylloyd (2008) elaborate that United States population has dramatically changed. The society has become diverse given the growth of the minority populations in the country. Nijhawan et al (2008) give evidence that over 11 million immigrants live in America presently. According to Fine (2009), the minority group comprises of 53 million Hispanics, 40 million African Americans, and 17 million Asians. The minorities live in the Western and Southern parts of the country. As the country experiences an increase in minority population, it is important to understand their cultural diversity and lifestyles. The change in population can influence businesses in the country. The savoir-faire entrepreneurs can diversify their products to cater for the growing population so that the country can grow economically.
Legislation associated with people’s rights
The enactment of the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Amendments seek to promote civil rights in America and abolish slave trade. There are jurisdictions that eliminate forms of oppression based on skin color, gender, age, sexual orientation, and ethnicity. Congress enacts civil rights amendments to protect people from all forms of discrimination. The First Amendment protects people‘s religion and guarantees freedom of expression without any interference. The church and state are separate. People can express themselves through the media since they have constitutional protection. The Fifth Amendment recognizes the right of social interaction. This legislation has the exception of associations that engage in harmful activities in the environment.
Political Processes Associated with Cultural Diversity
Western culture based on techno science and capitalism strives for homogeneity in this decade (Fine, 2009). This culture affects most parts of the world by absorbing them or by marginalization. The expansion of western culture advances civilization due to cultural diversity. The political leaders focus on the environmental and sustainability issues given the loss of biodiversity. Loss of cultural diversity becomes a threat to the environment as well as the people. The cultural diversity presents options for addressing current and future issues. There is a lot of knowledge generated in the contemporary world preserved by the western culture. The political system employs democracy as portrayed in public decision-making forums. Cultures have realized the benefits of groups to resolve political issues. This enables political empowerment and participation as displayed in the political debates.
Issues Related to Cultural Diversity
According to Fine (2009), Hispanics are the largest minority group in America. The Hispanics continue to increase and there is need for social work education among this group. This group suffers poverty, psychological disorders, and illiteracy. The country has racism barriers that inhibit opportunities from the minority groups. Cultural competent practice makes effort to educate people on cultural differences and limit discrimination. There is need for cultural competence among the minorities living in America. This will enable the development of knowledge that incorporates their cultures. It is important to gain an insight on the background ethnicity of the minority groups to understand their cultures when dealing with these groups. Most immigrants from Mexico are the poor people and are socially and politically vulnerable once they resettle in America. Fine (2009) offers that there is a transmigration group among the Mexican immigrants in America .This group of people traverse the country in search of labor. The transmigration group undergoes stress, discrimination, and poverty.
Sarros et al (2008) describes cultural competency as the combination of body language, beliefs, customs, and values in relation to a race, religious, ethnic, and any other specific group. Cultural competency entails a system of behaviors and policies that enable effective work across various cultures. In essence, people can perform well amidst cultural beliefs and behaviors. Cultural competency reduces gaps in the course of healthcare. Physicians and the patients can mingle and freely discuss health issues without any cultural hindrances (Betancourt et al., 2005).
Verbal and Nonverbal communication
Verbal communication is predominant across cultures. All the languages contain a distinguished style from each other. Problem emanates when a person uses one verbal style across another culture. Verbal communication has three cultural differences. This includes the degree to express ideas logically, the degree of elaborateness, and the degree of openness. Non-verbal communication involves the use of codes such as gaze, dressing, posture, vocal nuance among other codes. Cultures have different variety of dressing styles that communicate cultural standards as well as status in society. Cultures determine touch code. Some communities do not touch strangers especially of the opposite sex while some communities perceive failure to touch as a sense of discrimination towards them.
Space and Territoriality with respect to Intercultural Communication
Each living thing encompasses a boundary that separates it externally. This boundary is visible and has an inner surrounding of invisible boundary. Betancourt et al (2005) infers that territoriality occur once a living thing invades another’s territory. Humans are subject to high development culture in their territoriality. The traditional American woman has a territory around the kitchen and overall house just as the American man has a territory around his area of work. Space is a strong communicator of cultures. Some communities reserve the top floors of buildings for the executives while some communities prefer a corner office for the top brass. People use personal space as a form of territory. In some communities people tend to maintain their own personality and often feel uncomfortable in the presence of crowds of people.
Impact of Immigration on Language
Nijhawan et al (2008) asserts that immigrant children fail to learn bilingual education in this decade. The children immigrants speak fluent English language as the requirement of citizenship in America. The Hispanic descent shifts to English language mostly among the new entrants. The public schools in America have a duty of assisting the minority groups to maintain their language and cultures. This is a policy option and not a legal requirement. The courts do not support minority as they try to practice their own cultures to rectify past oppressions. Bilingual classes for the immigrants need extra support within and without the school. In the past, immigrants’ children in the public schools learn patriotism and civic studies and could not attend schools with the natives.
Cultural differences and Conflict resolution
Fine (2009) detail that, the interaction of different cultures in the society can lead to a dead end. Cross- cultural interactions are subject to disorientation, people do not want to invest time and learn each other’s cultural differences. This can transform in enormous conflicts because of cultural differences. It is crucial for one to identify cultures and behaviors of social interactions that forge relationships. One has to identify obstacles present in cross-cultural interactions an endeavor to use negotiating mechanism by understanding own and the other culture. A negotiator must understand cultural similarities and differences to aid in preparation for an interaction.
Yate (2006) informs that to hire the right sales manager is to ensure a candidate has specialized skill that has links to a sales manager. The specialized skill is portable from one industry to another. The role of a sales manager is skill developed through training and experience. According to Rapp (2009), a candidate for sales manager position must have a cultural fit in Fortune 500 Company. This manager must possess skills and proficiency as the rest of the employees. The candidate must portray a previous experience in the field of sales mostly as a manager. Raymond (2006) illustrates that recruiting a good sales manager is the priority of every successful organization. Fortune 500 has to employ a good sales manager to propel the sales and ensure the company gets a market share amidst stiff competition in the industry. Marshall (2013) cites that a great sales hire will increase the sales of a company since the manager will recruit a formidable team that will accelerate growth and create value for all the people in the company.
The first candidate Jake is a proficient Accountant as states in the resume. This candidate has not worked as a manager in the past and cannot fit this position of sales manager. This candidate fails to meet the basic requirement for a sales manager position. Jakes does not have prior experience in sales and may not employ tactics to improve the sales level in the face of stiff competition in the market. As a sales manager, a candidate will be required to have knowledge on fiber optics and Jakes has none. Jakes has been accustomed to sitting at the desk and handling his accounting work. This cannot fit with the job description that requires the candidate to make many travels among the five companies from Monday through Friday. The work culture in Fortune 500 entails meeting prospective clients and establishing sales contact. Jakes current work culture is not compatible with Fortune 500 culture. Jakes territory is the office aided with a desktop computer that has accounting software. Jakes does not possess an ability to work in others and this can inhibit him as a sales manager. This is because a sales manager works in unison with the sales consultants. The post for a sales manager offers him a new territory coupled with technical skills such as Dreamweaver and desktop publishing that he does not possess. Jakes does not fit in this position since his resume does not demonstrate prior experience in the field of sales or any activity in public relations. The idea to switch jobs from an accountant to sales can only work if Jakes can join the sales department as a junior employee not at the top brass.
Lynn is an IT Manager and has knowledge on fiber optics as stated in her resume. Lynn has in the past worked as a manager but not in a sales position. Lynn does not have prior knowledge in sales. Lynn has challenges in communicating fluent English language. Lynn is a leading expert in fiber optics field does not translate her expertise in sales. She has expertise in applying fiber optics technology but not making sales. This will be a draw back as a manager since a sales manager must portray fluency in English language. Lynn has majored in Math as well as Computer analysis she fails to meet the basic requirement. Lynn does not portray having prior experience in sales. Lynn’s territory is in an office where she writes publication on her fiber optics domain. In this case, she may not fit as a sales manager since it has a different territory from her previous employment. Lynn does not have organization fit since her previous engagement and the one for Fortune 500 are not compatible. As a sales manager, Lynn demonstrates knowledge on fiber optics. The only
limitation is that in this new engagement the sales manager has to make long travels to establish contacts with potential buyers instead of write editions
Karen has worked as sales representatives for the last five years. Additionally she is proficient in fiber optic engineering demonstrated by her grades in her resume. Karen has been very successful as a sales representative in her company and has received recognition. Karen may not fit as a sales manager in fortune 500 because of current marital status. This job requires a person to devote most of the time in travels and establishing sales deals. Karen present situation inhibits her from being flexible to spend her leisure time with clients. Consequently, Karen is relocating to Atlanta and she may not be able to make travels as demands this position. Karen’s life presents other commitments that may destruct her from attaining the demands of this job.
Jyoti is a manager of a wireless Retail Store. She has had numerous experiences in the sales department in her previous job as well as the current one. According to Jyoti resume, she has worked as a sales manager in the company. Jyoti has been able to train a sales team due to her expertise in sales. She has been pivotal to the success of the company, as sales have risen to sixty percent recently. Jyoti is confident person in the sales department given her commitment, proficiency.Jyoti has laid up strategic plans concerning her current employment, and in this regard, she can design strategic plans for fortune 500. Jyoti previous work culture fits with Fortune 500. Jyoti has experience in selling cellular phones and can work in Forbes 500 as a sales manager. Jyoti is flexible in that she can withstand travels throughout the week and spending leisure time with prospective clients. Jyoti is a good manager who can train sales representatives in Forbes 500 to work with her and promote the sales. Jyoti has ability to recruit sales people given her success in wireless store. Jyoti experience in the sales department will enable her to build a high performance sales team, as the head of sales in Fortune 500.Jyoti proficiency in recruiting sales people will ensure the company’s product effectiveness in the industry. Jyoti is a sales expert that has the ability to forecast the needs of customers in cellular services. Jyoti is a crucial asset in Fortune 500 that can bring enormous transformation in this firm. Jyoti can provide accurate forecasts in predicting when deals are close since her previous engagement has enabled her to maximize her potential. Jyoti present work culture will allow her to fit in this new territory and continue maximizing her potential as a sales manager in Forbes 500
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