Tourism is the process of marketing some of the enjoyable features of a country. The country being the travel destination for all tourists from all over the world, tourism creates awareness of the unique features of the country among them being the various cultural practices, weather, wild animals, geographical landscapes, natural features, ancient artifacts and many other unique features. Tourism creates awareness about all the features of a country that are of interest to the tourists out there. It is also the provision of facilities and services that interest tourists and offer pleasure for all travelers from all over the world.
There are two broad categories of tourists; Local tourists and foreign tourists. Local tourists are local inhabitants of a country who travel across their country to see several different sites, features, animals and events that interests them within their country of origin. Foreign tourists on the other hand are those travelers who cross borders, cross international seas to reach destined locations, countries and different sites in the view of identifying artifacts, seeing animals, relaxation, adventure, having fun, research and many other reasons that might entail the need to travel and reach other destinations.
Tourists from all over the world do research about the best places to visit and the right destination choice for their relaxation or to achieve their objective of travelling. Countries across African continent, Asian continent, South America and other continents advertise to the overall public about their features and unique admirable attributes of interest to tourists across the globe. Tourists, researchers and travelers from all over the world, do research about their target destinations. By the help of targeted advertisements, centered advertisements that will create a thirst and enthusiasm among the tourists from all over the world, a country will be able to receive a huge number of tourists. From creative advertisements, unique representations of the features available for view in a country, knowledge of the country, assurance of safety, comfortable rooms, hotels and restaurants, knowledge of a currency exchange system, easy payment platform, assurance of tour guides, travelling maps and many other features that will be in place in the advertisements will motivate, and enforce travelling decision by the tourists. A chosen country is the best alternative foregone as a tourist is faced by numerous decisions as to which country to visit. To improve the tourism industry in china, all measures to improve and intensify advertisement should be put in place.
According to a report on IBIS world’s hotels market research conducted in august 2014, the hotel industry in china has been growing by an average of 9.3% in form of revenue received because of tourism. From 2014, the revenues have increased to $47.7 billion dollars. Nevertheless, the growth rates have gone down over the years. Due to Shangai Expo and Guangzhou Asian games, tourism in china was boosted (Cui, Yang, & Zhang, 2010). These events resulted in an increase in foreign tourists that travelled to China to view the events. The number of tourists however declined in the period of 2012 to 2013. International tourists declined by 2.7% and 1.8% respectively hence reducing the revenues earned by China from tourism (Zhou, Huang, & Hsu, 2008).
Foreign enterprises according to the report have had a significant impact on China’s tourism industry. They have introduced chain management and advertised the China brand and the services. China’s hotel industry has four top players in it. The companies dominating the hotel industry in China are; Shangri-la Hotels and Resorts, Shanghai JinJiang International Hotels Development, InterContinental Hotels Group and Guangdong International Hotel Management Holdings. According to the report they accounted for a combined market share of 4.3% in 2014 (Zheng & Gu, 2008).
Diversity in Chinese Hotel Industry:
The search for new strategies to attract more tourists is of more importance to the Chinese hotel industry. Local and international tourists, continuously demand for better value and customer service. With the improvement in technology, life for tourists all over the world has been intensified. Hotels in china should work round the clock to use all recent technological advertisement measures to put the image of China on the globe (Zhang, Chong, & Jenkins, 2002). The rise of Social media and innovation in technology has made it easier for countries to better use the internet to improve on advertising. China should also adopt a digital strategy in putting the map of china in the internet amidst the improvement in technology in order to target more tourists ("China Tourism Industry | Economy Watch,").
China should also attract and retain quality staff. Quality staff helps improve the hotel industry through their innovative ideas, and creative ingenious. The strategies and ideas once implemented are bound to improve the revenues generated by the Chinese hotel industry. Several initiatives and policies all aimed at improving revenues is the central focus of all strategic managers of hotels in China. Having a culturally diverse team is also a method that should be adopted by hotels in China. This enables the staff to learn from each other about the different cultural practices, their diversities (World Tourism Organization & European Travel Commission, 2013). Customers also stand to benefit by better customer service for all the tourists. Tourists feel at home when they visit china and find their culture represented there. This is also a method to improve customer satisfaction and overall translating into a tourist surge in china.
Improving Revenues in the Chinese Hotel Industry
It is evident that the hotel industry in China is contributed by tourism. Local tourists and foreign tourists improve the revenues collected by the industry. Measures to better improve customer service and tourist’s awareness should be in place to better educate tourists all over the world of the rich culture in china, the landscapes, animals and all features that are of interests to all tourists. Better technological advances should be made in developing a digital strategy that will allow hotels in china better advertise about their services to the clients (Puri & Chand, 2009).
Social media has made it easier for businesses from all over the world to best advertise their platform. Through the various instant messaging services like Whatsapp, Skype, facebook chat option interaction with customers and tourists from all over the world. This will be convenient in providing feedback to the customers and better solving their queries. Through blogs that will educate the tourists of the various sites in china, knowledge is passed to tourists and this will enable them better make their decisions and choose china as their travel destination (Arlt, 2006).
Developing a culturally diversity staff will also go a long way in improving the image of the Chinese hotels to the customers all over the world. The staff will learn from each other the various cultures and diversities in opinions, language and this will help them better attend to the diverse tourism needs that are received by China. Tourists will receive better services as a result of a staff base that is culturally diverse. They will feel at home when they visit the hotels and find a representation of home there.In order to ascertain the factors affecting revenue collection by hotels in China and to find out the measures that could be put in place to better improve the revenues generated by the tourism industry, a research study was done on a sample population.
The study aimed at achieving the following objective:
Whether Hotels in China have adopted a digital strategy in advertising their services to tourists across the globe.
Satisfaction rates for tourists who visit China.
Whether revenues are affected by other factors.
Tourism is the process of creating awareness to tourists across the globe of the features of interest to all tourists that are present in the country of origin. Tourists are categorized as local and foreign tourists, and a country wishes to maximize revenues from tourism by acquiring all local and international tourists they can. Improvement in technology has made it easier for businesses to advertise their portfolio by having a digital strategy (Lo, 2008). Chinese hotels should invest in having a digital strategy to advertise their portfolio to the tourists from all over the world. Adapting to a culturally diverse staff is also a measure that will improve customer satisfaction and overall retain the tourists and ensure that China is their best alternative when they decide to travel again.
The trends in the tourism industry in china attest to the economic set up of China in reference to the tourism industry. China has received several unpredicted circumstances and premeditated situations all of which have affected the tourism industry in China. Some of the trends that have been seen in the tourism industry in China include; an abrupt decrease in revenues received from tourism in China in 2002, where they reduced from $67.3 billion to $59 billion in the year 2003. Revenues earned by the tourism industry in China adversely reduced and the reduction was attributed to SARS. 91.66 million Travelers visited China in the year 2003. Among this number 32.7million travelers stayed back overnight. It is important to also note that global tourism that year accounted for 17.4 billion travelers in the year 2003 (Lockyer, 2007). Local tourists formed the main revenue block, as domestic tourism in China accounted for 70% of the revenues generated from tourism industry in China. According to the trends discovered in the tourism industry in China, it is evident that the tourism industry contributes approximately 12.7% towards the overall G.D.P of the country every year. The growth rates have been noted to rise at a rate of 7.4% annually. (http://www.economywatch.com/world-industries/tourism/china.html)
In order to effectively carry out the research method, techniques to collect data were thoroughly evaluated on the basis of their advantages and disadvantages. Considering the nature of the sample population selected, the following methods of collecting data were critically analyzed on the basis of the merits and demerits:
Use of Questionnaires
Interviews conducted to the selected population
Questionnaires are set of written or printed questions administered to respondents in a research study, with a choice of answers, devised specifically for the sole purpose of the research study. The aim of administering such questions is to get feedback from the respondents.
The advantages of Questionnaires include:
They are very practical
Numerous amount of information could be collected from a large number of population within a short period of time.
The results of the questionnaires are easily quantified by the researcher.
The quantified data could be used to compare and contrast other research studies and is used to measure change.
Disadvantages of Questionnaires include:
They lack validity
There is no way the researcher could tell the honesty of the respondents
There is no way to ascertain how much thought the respondent has put in.
Respondents might interpret the questions differently.
Interviews are formal meetings between the researcher and the respondents. In the meeting the respondent is expected to have formulated questions and administer to the respondents. The researcher receives feedback in form of answers and notes them. These answers are then analyzed to come up with conclusive findings and logical reasons to explain the phenomena (Li & Sun, n.d).
Advantages of interviews Include:
There is easy correction of misunderstanding
Relationship between the interviewer and the interviewee is developed through an interview
Suitable candidates are selected through interviews
Interviews assist in collecting new, fresh and primary information.
Sufficient information is collected from the interview
Interviews help save time as within a short time communication is accomplished.
Interviews are less costly
Interviews increase the knowledge of interviewer and interviewee
Planed interviews provide detailed information that will enable proper analysis.
Disadvantages of Interviews include:
In case of confusion there is no evidence and no record of the discussion
Sometimes both the interviewer and interviewee become less attentive.
The interviewee may be disappointed when faced with questions
It is time consuming
There is a possibility that the interview process might be influenced by biases of the interviewer.
They are generally costly
They are not suitable for personal matters.
Surveys are defined as the process to inspect and examine phenomena while in the process of arriving at conclusive feedback that explains the research questions. Surveys are conducted on objects and subjects with or without their knowledge to ascertain their natural behavior and occurrences.
Advantages of Surveys Include:
Are easy to administer
Surveys are developed in less time
Surveys are generally cost effective
Surveys could be conducted via online, mail, mobile devices, kiosk or telephone
Surveys are capable of collecting numerous data from large number of respondents
Standardized surveys are free from errors.
Disadvantages of Surveys Include:
Respondents may not be enticed to provide honest and accurate answers
Respondents may not be comfortable in providing answers
Respondents may not be aware of the reasons for the survey
Closed ended questions surveys, may have a lower validity rate than other questions
Errors due to non-responses may arise
After a keen analysis of the three data collection methods, the use of questionnaires was seen to be fit for collecting data. The reason was a large number of respondents were to be interviewed and the feedback from the questionnaires would be easily quantified and the feedback analyzed through pictorial representations to highlight the actual feedback from the sample population. The sample population’s views represented the ideologies and wishes of the overall population ("Hotels in China Market Research | IBISWorld).
Sample of the Questionnaire administered to the respondents
Thank you for your time and the chance to fill the questionnaire. Kindly give your honest opinions on the questions asked.
Have you ever seen blogs, pages on social media and Targeted Google Ads advertising hotels in China?
Are you satisfied by the services you receive at the hotels in China?
Are you satisfied with the following categories:
Security in China?()
Weather in China?()
Ethical Issues in using Questionnaires as a means of data collection
Appropriate questions that do not offend the respondents should be selected.
The Questionnaire should be structured, and the questions structured to allow the respondents to give additional information that they consider important.
The approach should respect people of all background, experience, race and literacy
Legal and ethical considerations regarding disclosure of respondents vies should be considered and views of the respondents should be highly confidential.
Time Scale and resources
Item Description Time Scale Resources needed to plan($)
Questionnaire Design 2 Weeks $30
Researchers 5 of them 2 Days Training $100
Vehicle Hiring 1 Day $100
Foods & Drinks During the Study 1 Day $50
Analysis of Feedback 2 Weeks $200
Constraints Encountered during the research study:
Some of the challenges that we received during the research study were, getting Institutions to Participate. In order to find institutions and persons that will be able to participate in the questionnaire we experienced many huddles. We experienced challenges in gathering the respondents, determining and identifying the sample population (Hon & Lu, 2010).
We also received challenges in assembling a research team. The research team was to assemble the respondents, and administer the questionnaires to them. Finding a self motivated research team that would aid the research process and supervise he process was a big challenge. The team was to time the respondents and collect the questionnaires after successful completion of the research process.
We were also challenged in choosing the right methodology. Being faced with three choices, questionnaires interviews and surveys, we had to evaluate each option considering their merits and demerits. We arrived at the conclusion of adapting to questionnaires as they suited the research study (Guo, Kim, & Timothy, 2007).
During the study staying motivated and motivating the research team members was a hurdle for the research exercise. Paying for the vehicle, food and drinks for the exercise, paying the research team members was considered a wise method to keep the team motivated and enthusiastic in the whole research process. The team had to be motivated enough to allow the smooth running of the research process. Analyzing the data was also a major challenge for us during the research study (Guan & Hong Kong Polytechnic University, 2012). We require software skills. SPSS was chosen to help us analyze the findings from the research. Know how on the software was required to be able to arrive at conclusive findings. The findings would go a long way in explaining how to increase the revenue received by tourism industry in China.
Arlt, W. G. (2006). China's outbound tourism. London: Routledge.
China Tourism Industry | Economy Watch. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.economywatch.com/world-industries/tourism/china.html
Cui, Z., Yang, H., & Zhang, S. (2010). An exploration of service quality practices in the Chinese hotel industry — A comparison between CMHs and FMHs. doi:10.1109/IEEM.2010.5674484
Guan, J., & Hong Kong Polytechnic University. (2012). The attractiveness of local cuisine and its influence on Chinese domestic tourists' perceptions of destinations. Hong Kong: School of Hotel and Tourism Management, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University.
Guo, Y., Kim, S. S., & Timothy, D. J. (2007). Development Characteristics and Implications of Mainland Chinese Outbound Tourism. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research. doi:10.1080/10941660701760995
Hon, A. H., & Lu, L. (2010). The mediating role of trust between expatriate procedural justice and employee outcomes in Chinese hotel industry. International Journal of Hospitality Management. doi:10.1016/j.ijhm.2010.01.002
Hotels in China Market Research | IBISWorld. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.ibisworld.com/industry/china/hotels.html
Li, H., & Sun, J. (n.d.). Forecasting business failure: The use of nearest-neighbour support vectors and correcting imbalanced samples – Evidence from the Chinese hotel industry. Tourism Management. doi:10.1016/j.tourman.2011.07.004
Lockyer, T. L. (2007). The international hotel industry: Sustainable management. New York: Haworth Hospitality & Tourism Press.
Lo, J. Y. (2008). An examination of the relationships between strategic management and organisational performance in the Chinese hotel industry : a multiple-perspective approach.
Puri, M., & Chand, G. (2009). Tourism and hotel industry. Chandni Chowk, Delhi: Global Media.
World Tourism Organization, & European Travel Commission. (2013). The Chinese outbound travel market 2012 update.
Zhang, Q. H., Chong, K., & Jenkins, C. L. (2002). Tourism policy implementation in mainland China: an enterprise perspective. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management. doi:10.1108/09596110210415114
Zheng, T., & Gu, Z. (2008). Lodging capacity optimization: Application of an inventory model to China's lodging industry.
Zhou, Z., Huang, Y., & Hsu, M. K. (2008). Using Data Envelopment Analysis to Evaluate Efficiency: An Exploratory Study of the Chinese Hotel Industry. Journal of Quality Assurance in Hospitality & Tourism. doi:10.1080/15280080802412719