a. The study (Balaraman & Mathew, 2006) presents the experimental investigation of cyclosporine production by Tolypocladium fungi. This is the experimental research.
b. The authors found that the maximum production of cyclosporin was significantly (at 0.05 level) higher in glucose (8%), casein acid hydrolysate (3%), malt extract (2%), peptone (1%), and amino butyric acid (0.5%), comparing to medium with lower glucose content (4%).
a. The paper by Irum & Anjum (2012) is a full-size research paper on experimental study of methods to enhance cyclosporin by Aspergillus terreus by mutation induced by UV and chemical mutation.
b. The mutation resulted in morphological changes. No difference in pellet size was found for the mutants, and some of the organisms did not produce pelletes. The size of pellets is not related to cyclosporin production. The mutagenic treatment improve the drug production.
a. Kaul et al. (2009) studied the influence of cyclophilin for replication and production of Hepatitis C. The study is an observational research. The human cell material was used for the experiments.
b. The authors demonstrated that replication of subgenomic HCV replicons can be 1000-fold reduced by applicaton of CypA depletion. It was found that CypB had no effect.
a. Anjum, Azam & Irum (2012) performed a research of cyclosporine production by fermentation of Penicillium fellutanum. This is the experimental study since authors varied the conditions and searched for the most effective medium.
b. Cyclosporine was successfully synthesized from Penicillium fellutanum, and thus one more fungal source for cyclosporine production was found. The obtained cyclosporine samples were tested for their anti-fungal activity for Aspergillus niger, and the 1.15 cm inhibition zone was found.
a. Another aspect of cyclosporine properties is presented in the work of Paziana et al. (2013). The authors studied the application of cyclosporine during pregnancy. This is an observational study, since the authors had no influence on the experiment. The research is performed as clinical trial.
b. The cyclosporine crosses placenta, therefore it affects the fetus. However, no evidence were found in support of congenital malformations. It was proven to have influence on premature delivery, low birth weight infants. In addition, some organ specific comorbidities are associated with cyclosporine treatment: hypertension, pre-eclampsia and gestational diabetes. Kidney transplantants are more likely to develop hypertension, which is the most common consequence. Yet, it is difficult to distinguish the cyclosporine induced hypertension from maternal decease. The study is limited by small number of patiens involved. This is explained by infrequency of transplantation and autoimmune sicknesses within pregnant women.
The analyzed scholarly articles present enough evidence for cyclosporine production by the organisms. There are also scientific evidence of the possibilities to control and improve the cyclosporine production, namely by using the appropriate medium, chemical and UV mutation. The scientific evidence resulted from the experimental studies. The observational studies showed the effect of cyclosporine on Hepatitis C production. The research on cyclosporine influence on pregnant women illustrates the variety of the drug impacts on pregnancy length, state of the infant and women. Yet, the clinical effect of cyclosporine for treatment of autoimmune deceases and in therapy against organ injection is cogent. Despite of the certain effects for pregnant women, it is applied to protect the transplanted organs from the burden of pregnancy and for immunosuppression.
Anjum, T., Azam, A., & Irum, W. (2012). Production of cyclosporine a by submerged fermentation from a local isolate of penicillium fellutanum. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 74(4), 372-374.
Balaraman, K., & Mathew, N. (2006). Optimization of media composition for the production of cyclosporin A by tolypocladium species. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 123(4), 525-30. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.tacomacc.idm.oclc.org/docview/195979725?accountid=36202
Irum, W., & Anjum, T. (2012). Production enhancement of cyclosporin 'A' by aspergillus terreus through mutation. African Journal of Biotechnology, 11(7), 1736-1743.
Kaul, A., Stauffer, S., Berger, C., Pertel, T., Schmitt, J., Kallis, S., & Bartenschlager, R. (2009). Essential Role of Cyclophilin A for Hepatitis C Virus Replication and Virus Production and Possible Link to Polyprotein Cleavage Kinetics. Plos Pathogens, 5(8), 1-18.
Paziana, K., Monaco, M., Cardonick, E., Moritz, M., Keller, M., Smith, B., & Armenti, V. (2013). Ciclosporin Use During Pregnancy. Drug Safety, 36(5), 279-294.