Lesson Plan 3
Instructional strategies and activities 4
Classroom dynamics 6
This paper evaluates a lesson plan for nursing skills and knowledge; selected plan is “Teaching Plan for Diabetes Mellitus” by Louise Diehl (Nurse Practitioner). In relation to it, the paper uses Kitano's recommendations to evaluate entire lesson plan and provide a recommendation for each part. Kitano's recommendations suggest three levels of course change and each part is viewed from all three aspects. Content, instructional strategies, and activities, assessment of student knowledge and classroom dynamics are explained in a brief way.
The content is set in a good flow by considering every aspect of diabetes education. The steps in the general overview are quite powerful to make a patient able to treat the disease himself. Testing the blood glucose level and documenting it properly will help them know the level each day if it is not normal they would be able to take steps accordingly. The section medication and insulin also offers a good management of insulin or oral agents. The section, complications from diabetes, is also a necessary thing that every patient should know. Next section, exercise and diabetes is also set up in a good way. It defines the benefits of doing exercise and procedure and schedule that for how long and when to do exercise. Diet and diabetes is the most important part that a patient must know. It describes what diet should he or she follow and what will be the best to eat. This section is probably most critical of all to control diabetes and make it remain under control always. The last section, coping with diabetes, includes a good strategy to prepare the patient’s commitment to deal the diabetes rest of the life. Sometimes, patients get discouraged that if the disease is not going to be cured, then why to follow such strict rules. In this connection, patients must understand that controlling diabetes can prevent other cardiovascular risk factors. Following the rules and make them routine for the rest of the life is the only way to control diabetes and its side effects.
The lesson plan overall looks good, but it lacks to consider the multicultural aspect of educating patients. Patients may be African Americans, Latinos, Asian Americans and Native Americans; therefore, the lesson plan should consider these recommendations.
Kitano’s recommendations provide three levels of course change to judge the content of any content, and those three ways are exclusive, inclusive and transformed. In the exclusive level, content includes traditional perspectives and experiences. In the inclusive level, content includes various methods to convey knowledge such as material, speakers, reading and more. While, in transformed level, a lesson plan adopts a shift in paradigm and reconceptualizes the content. In the light of these levels, the content will be judged.
The content in this lesson plan focuses just one way to make patients understand about diabetes. If it is changed to exclusive level, then it must include material from various authors that belong to different cultures. It will help the teacher as well as patients to know about views of authors from different cultures and convey the same ideas to patients. Every patient’s medical needs can be fulfilled in an only way of adopting the multicultural approach. Making content diverse such as including material from different books and in different languages will help patients to understand the purpose of the program easily (Anonymous, 2010). If it is changed to inclusive level, the content must include case studies of different cases around the nation including all cultural groups. Many cultures do not believe firmly in medications, they prefer other traditional ways to cure diseases. It is therefore recommended to include examples and material from concerned cultural literature to educate such patients about the proper way to manage diabetes. If it is changed to transformed level, the content would have to include the content from different cultures and along with that reconceptualize the content in a way that is different from the traditional way of teaching.
Instructional strategies and activities
Kitano’s recommendations also help evaluating instructional strategies and activities with those three levels. Here in exclusive level, strategies mostly include lectures and other instructive techniques. In the inclusive level, the instructor acts as a source of knowledge using different methods to provide patients with his own knowledge and experiences. While in transformed level, a control structure is adopted for strategies and activities as patients and presenter can learn from each other (Spooner, Baker, Harris, Ahlgrim-Delzell, & Browder, 2007).
Instructional strategies and activities in every section were a little bit change. Starting with the first section, its first-point activity covers cornerstones of blood glucose control including meal planning, routine blood glucose testing, medication, exercise, and lifestyle management. The lesson plan must include some different strategies that reflect multicultural methods of education. Referring to different literature, activities, and instructional strategies must be adopted. Second and third points are also of the same type because they do not involve any creative activity (Lynch, & Warner, 2008). They just involve didactic methods to convey knowledge towards patients. The fourth point includes discussion on stress and emotional impact of having diabetes. It matches with inclusive strategies and activities that encourage patients to share their knowledge and build critical thinking skills (Jacobs, Martin, & Otieno, 2008).
In the exercise and diabetes, the same traditional way is adopted to convey knowledge, and the activity also does not include any creative idea; however, the points are powerful and full of knowledge. It further encourages to list healthy ways to handle stress (Lee, Hayashi, & Mizoguchi, 2012). The last section, coping with diabetes, includes activities that are of the inclusive type. This section allows patients to put their share by listing strategies to overcome problems that occur during such unchangeable conditions. Patients will list those strategies on the blackboard or flip charts (Jacobs, Martin, & Otieno, 2008). Listing most important and less important things in life also involves critical thinking, and building critical thinking skills is a sign of the inclusive level of course change (DomNwachukwu, 2005).
Margie K. Kitano has also offered recommendations for assessment of student knowledge in those same three levels (Morey, & Kitano, 1997). If any teacher or presenter is assessing knowledge of students/patients with traditional exams and papers, it will lie in exclusive level. In the inclusive level, a teacher/presenter will assess students/patients with multiple methods and alternatives to the standards exams (Craft, & Bland, 2004). In the transformed level, teacher/presenter uses alternatives that focus on student growth such as action-oriented projects and self-assessment (Ozogul, Olina, & Sullivan, 2008).
In this lesson plan, the patients are assessed with traditional examination and papers; therefore, it will be considered as the exclusive level of course change. The lesson plan should include diverse methods to assess the knowledge of the students, because not everybody has the same background (Craft, & Bland, 2004).
Kitano's recommendations further describe classroom dynamics at all three levels. In the exclusive level, the teacher mostly focuses on curriculum and avoids discussion of social issues. Further, the teacher does not attempt to monitor the participation of patients in the classroom activities (DomNwachukwu, 2005). In the inclusive level, the teacher acknowledges the discussion of social issues in the classroom. In this level, the teacher ensures that every student must participate in classroom activities. In the transformed level, the teacher encourages patients to participate in the discussion and challenge the biased views (Anonymous, 2010).
In this lesson, plan presenter has followed the inclusive level of course change. Every participant is encouraged to participate in different activities (Morey, & Kitano, 1997). Every patient may have different educational beliefs; therefore, classroom dynamics must adopt diversity in order to provide patients with information from their respective culture (Hefflin, 2002). Further, in coping with diabetes, patients are asked to share their views on whether diabetes increase stress in life. Not every patient can contribute to this activity; in this regard a different approach should be referred (Lee, Hayashi, & Mizoguchi, 2012).
The lesson plan has all three types of information and activities. Somewhere it follows the exclusive level, somewhere inclusive and less often transformed. Content is set in a good manner but lacks diversity. The presenter should consider referring to material and activities from authors of different cultures. It should further include a variety of methods and material to convey knowledge and activities that encourage patients to participate and use their critical thinking skills. Those content and activities, which include something different from traditional ways and adopt alternatives to standard methods, are considered as of transformed level. In the session, positive coping strategies, lesson plan encourages patients to use their pedagogical skills; therefore, it lies in transformed level.
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